“The Revolution is over . . . I am the Revolution.” • What does the quote mean? What does it reveal about Napoleon?
Think About This Quote---After We Are Done I Will Ask You If You Agree---Why or Why Not? "I closed the gulf of anarchy and brought order out of chaos. I rewarded merit regardless of birth or wealth, wherever I found it. I abolished feudalism and restored equality to all regardless of religion and before the law. I fought the decrepit monarchies of the Old Regime because the alternative was the destruction of all this. I purified the Revolution.“ – Napoleon Bonaparte
Early Life • Born (1769) in Corsica to poor family • Character traits from the Enlightenment • Creative, scientific, non-traditional, liberal • The ideas of the philosophes influenced his government, religion, law, education, and economy reforms.
Discrimination Napoleon Faced In Military School Because He Was Corsican • Corsicans were thought of as lower people and Napoleon's Corsican decent could have hindered his advancements because of stereotypes such as they were dirty and poor islanders with no education or class. • Also Corsican society had very different ideals and values from those of Paris which people sometimes associated Napoleon with even though he moved to Paris when he was nine years old. • It was also easy for people to realize that Napoleon was an islander because of his accent. • He was so worried about being accepted by the people of Paris that he even changed the spelling of his from Buonaparte to Bonaparte to give it a French rather than Italian pronunciation. (Erickson 140) • This is why his marriage to Josephine later on would make it easier for him to rise politically.
Early Life • Napoleon was commissioned as a lieutenant in the French army. • He was not popular with his fellow officers. • He was able to inspire and motivate the troops under his command.
Early Life • Studied French philosophy • Analyzed famous military campaigns and strategy • Studied the use of artillery in the army. • The revolution provided Napoleon with the perfect opportunity to take advantage of his knowledge and talents.
Military Successes • Napoleon rose quickly through the ranks of the French army. • By age 26 he was the Commander of the French armies in Italy.
Military Successes Italian Campaigns The Treaty of Campo Formio: Took Austria out of the war and placed all of Italy and Switzerland under French control. It made Napoleon a national hero in France. In a series of lighting quick victories Napoleon crushed the Austrian armies in Italy. On his own initiative he concluded the Treaty of Campo Formio with Austria, against the wishes of the government in Paris.
Impact of Josephine • Josephine Bonaparte had an immense impact on her husband Napoleon, assisting him to his rise to one of the greatest political powers and military leaders that Europe has ever seen. • Josephine's social powers and great personality assisted and affected Napoleon. • The emotional ties that bonded them greatly impacted Napoleon from day to day. • It was also her opinions that influenced him, for he often listened to them and took them to heart. • Napoleon remained grateful til the day he died for her "devotion and self-sacrifice" (Laing 193) and regretted divorcing her for the rest of his life. • Josephine's good friend Claire Rémusat once said that "She (Josephine) acted as the original link between the French nobility and the Consular Government."(Laing 123). • She would listen to their needs and tell Napoleon what she thought should be done to satisfy them fairly (Laing 124). • When Josephine was Empress, Napoleon made it part of her job to enforce the newsocial code and it is said that he did this because many of the reforms sheherself had introduced (Erickson 240). • Napoleon had many great ideas and actions which Josephine often gave her input into and had an effect on the final result.
Character Traits of Napoleon Also Found In Dictators of 20th Century • Impressive intellectual ability • Could work 18 to 20 hours at a stretch without a break in concentration • He was “a typical man of the 18th century, a rationalist, a philosophe who placed trust in reason, in knowledge and in methodical effort” • He also had a love for action and boundless ambition. • He had charisma and could move men to obedience, to loyalty, and to heroic acts. • He was quite arrogant and manipulated people at will. • He said, “A man like me troubles little about the lives of a million men.” • From the Revolution, he learned that he must become a statesman and a tyrant to consolidate the Revolution and bind together the different social classes. • Machiavelli, the author of The Prince, would have thought Napoleon was the perfect prince---the whole concept of the end justifies the means. • Napoleon made it impossible for the Old Regime to be restored as it was.
Napoleon was the first modern political figure to use the philosophies of the Enlightenment combined with the idea of nationalism, and to back both with military power and force in the service of his own power and ambition. • The Consulate had democratic principles and voting rights, however, Napoleon soon seized power for himself and was named the First Consul.
“The truest conquests, the only ones that give rise to no regrets, are those gained over ignorance. The most honorable as well as the most useful activity of nations is to contribute to the advancement of human knowledge. The real strength of the French Republic should henceforth lie in its determination to possess every new idea, without a single exception.” — Napoleon Bonaparte (upon his election to the National Institute of France)
– Napoleon, quoted in Thorpe, Scott, How to Think Like Einstein, Barnes & Noble Books, Inc., 2000, p.167. "A man will fight harder for his interests than for his rights."
Used:----Propaganda • Rhetoric of the Revolution • Nationalism • Force • Combined these three into a • mighty weapon for expansion of • France and of his power – was a • model that future dictators • Followed • At 30, was a virtual dictator • Was the end of the Revolution
Plebiscite(Napoleon’s Use of “Democracy”) A direct vote by the people on a specific issue. • Napoleon overthrew the Government (1799) • 3,000,000 Approved • 3,000 Disapproved • Napoleon was named Emperor (1804) • 3,500,000 Approved • 2,600 Disapproved He used rhetoric of Revolution to “legitimize” his actions, but gave people very little choice.
Why Napoleon Had Support • The leading elements of the 3rd Estate (government officials, landowners, doctors, lawyers, bankers) had achieved most of their goals by 1799 • Had abolished hereditary privilege, allowing people of talent to achieve wealth and status • Were not really excited about sharing wealth with the poor • Peasants had also gotten what they wanted • Got their land • Got rid of feudal privileges • People were tired of the chaos, and Napoleon appeared to be the man who would give them security now that their privileges were won
Political Changes: New Government: Consulate • Overthrew the corrupt Directory • Suspended the legislative bodies • Created a new government called that Consulate that ran for four years • Wrote another new constitution-the fourth in ten years of revolution • Executive branch consisted of three men called Consuls to serve for ten years • Napoleon was First Consul and had the power to appoint the heads of seven ministries, all ambassadors, high military officers, and department heads. • This was based upon the actions of Julius Caesar.
Napoleon as “First Consul” • With the government in disarray, Napoleon launched a successful coup d’ etat on November 9, 1799. • He proclaimed himself “First Consul” [Julius Caesar’s title] and did away with the elected Assembly [appointing a Senate instead]. • In 1802, he made himself sole “Consul for Life.” • Two years later he proclaimed himself “Emperor.”
The Government of the Consulate • Council of State • Proposed the laws. • Served as a Cabinet & the highest court. • Tribunate • Debated laws, but did not vote on them. • Legislature • Voted on laws, but did not discuss or debate them. • Senate • Had the right to review and veto legislation.
New Government Continued: Legislative Branch • Legislative branch made up of three houses • The Tribunate: a)100 members chosen to serve for five years b)discussed laws but did not vote on them • The Legislature of Three Hundred: a)voted on the laws but did not discuss them • Senate: • a)reviewed the laws and could veto them *Members of the legislative bodies were selected from a prepared list of a group of 80 conservative senators selected by the Consuls---made the people think they had a say in the legislative branch, but there were no elections
Quest to Conquer Europe • Napoleonic Wars Begin • Extension of wars fought during the French Revolution, would last a decade • France dominant power in Europe • French empire grew rapidly, but fell apart more quickly • Nelson and British navy won Battle of Trafalgar off coast of Spain • Napoleon defeated Russian and Austrian troops at Austerlitz
The Creation of an Empire • 1804-1814: Napoleon creates an empire by annexing territory • Netherlands • Belgium • Parts of Italy • Parts of Germany • Napoleon cut Prussian territory in half • Many countries signed treaties with France to avoid conflict • Napoleon placed relatives on the thrones of several places to solidify his control
Napoleonic Europe Continued • In 1803, ended with war with England • Fought the War of the Third Coalition where Napoleon: a)Beat the Austrians at the Battle of Ulm b)Beat the Austro-Russian Army at Austerlitz c)Defeated the Prussians at Jena and marched into Berlin d)Defeated the Russians at Eylau and Friedland *Made his brother Joseph the King of Naples *Made his brother Louis the King of Holland *Created the Duchy of Warsaw from land conquered from the Prussians.
Napoleon Dominates Europe • Mastered Most of Europe • Through treaties, alliances, and victories in battle • Controlled much of Europe by 1812 • Free of Control • Great Britain remained an enemy • Sweden, Portugal, and the Ottoman Empire escaped Bonaparte’s grip • Rewarded Relatives • Relatives put in power; brothers on thrones of Holland, Naples, and Sicily • Sisters and stepson held powerful positions
Napoleon’s Empire • Napoleon could put as many as 700,000 men under arms at one time, risk as many as 100,000 troops in a single battle, endure heavy losses, and return to fight again. • He could conscript citizen soldiers in unprecedented numbers, thanks to their loyalty to the nation. No single enemy could match such Resources, even coalitions failed
Napoleon’s Family Rules! • Jerome Bonaparte King of Westphalia. • Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain • Louise Bonaparte King of Holland • Pauline Bonaparte Princess of Italy • Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles (son) King of Rome • Elisa Bonaparte Grand Duchess of Tuscany • Caroline Bonaparte Queen of Naples
Next Political Cartoon Commenting On Napoleon • TIDDY-DOLL,THE GREAT FRENCH GINGERBREAD BAKER, PREPARING A NEW BATCH OF KINGS. The maker of kingsThis famous caricature was both adapted and changed in France in 1815 and given the following title:Four des Alliés ou le Corse près à être cuit/ the Oven of the Allies or the Corsican ready to be baked (see C. Clerc, p. 247, n° 119). • Gillray's original print refers to the creation of the Rhine Federation in 1806 thanks to which Napoleon (who remains general Buonaparte for the English) put an end to the Holy Roman German Empire and created a series of allied Kingdoms of France: Wurtemberg, Bavaria, Saxony, Westphalia. • Criticism is addressed to the "usurper" and to the little kings of Germany baked by Napoleon alike.
Council of State • Contained men of high technical abilities supported by younger men to be trained in becoming higher civil servants • By 1811, the Council of State was in charge of over 300 civil servants who supervised financial, legal, military, and domestic affairs • This was the start of the French bureaucracy and still exists today.
Civil Code or Code Napoleon • Created a uniform code of law • Recognized the principles of equality before the law, freedom of thought, and the supremacy of the state---ORDER AND SECURITY----Hobbes • There were regulations on all aspects of life---marriage, inheritance, property, etc… • One of the negatives was the power it gave to men over women. • The Civil Code treated women as irresponsible minors.
Napoleonic Code • Safeguarded all forms of property • Employment was based on talent not birth • Merit based pay • Workers’ organizations were forbidden • Men were granted extensive control of their • families • 5. Divorce was made difficult for women • The code was a reform of civil law in France. It would eventually spread to the rest of Europe.
Code Napoleon, 1804 • It divides civil law into: • Personal status. • Property. • The acquisition of property. • Its purpose was to reform the French legal code to reflect the principles of the Fr. Revolution. • Create one law code for France.
Napoleonic Code • Made citizens equal in the eyes of the law---Equality • Established religious tolerance---Liberty • Advancement was based on merit---Fraternity • Took rights away from women—now controlled by male guardians
Code Napoleon • All people were declared equal before the law.---Equality • There were no longer special privileges for nobles, the clergy, or rich people.---FraternityFeudal rights were ended.---Fraternity • Wives were not allowed to sell or give away property. • Trial by jury was guaranteed.---Liberty • Religious freedom was guaranteed.---Liberty • Parents were given power over their children. • Fathers were allowed to imprison their children for any time up to a month.
Napoleon Wrote About The Civil Code • “My glory consists not of having won forty battles ;that which nothing will erase, that which will live eternally, is my Civil Code and the Minutes of the State Council."
The Influence of the Napoleonic Code Wherever it was implemented [in the conquered territories], the Code Napoleon swept away feudal property relations.
Napoleon and Propaganda • Bonaparte was not only a warrior; he was also a shrewd propagandist. • During his first campaign in Italy, he carefully crafted reports from the battlefield, designed to increase his glory while masking the ruthlessness with which he plundered the country. • He created his own newspapers — France and the Army of Italy, and The Newspaper of the Army of Italy, which exalted his victories. • Bonaparte himself actually writes some articles. He himself wrote: "Bonaparte flies like lightning and strikes like a thunderbolt."
Napoleon and Propaganda • He saw that his intelligence, his abilities were more than just military. Not only had he become a great general, but also possibly a future statesman. And everybody realizes it, not only in Italy, but in France too. • His strategy included commissioning paintings of himself. • He brilliantly created a mythical image of himself – an infallible hero, destined by God to rule over France.
Napoleon’s first wife, Josephine de Beauharnais, aided her husband’s career through her interpersonal skills and political connections.
Napoleon and Propaganda • He orders a painting after a victory. He dictates the theme, the layout of the characters. He even orders the dimensions of the frame. • From the very beginning Napoleon gave himself an image. He created his own history. • From his first triumphs, Bonaparte understood that it’s not enough to win victories. • He uses images to make sure that his victories in Italy are widely publicized in France.