Cells and Heredity Chapter 1 Cell Structure and Function. Section 1-Discovering Cells
Section 1 –Discovering Cells: Objectives- • Explain how the invention of the microscope contributed to the scientists’ understanding of living things • State the three points of cell theory • Describe how a microscope works, including how a lenses magnifies an object.
Vocabulary • 1. cellThe basic unit of structure and function in living things.
4. cell theoryA widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things.
6. convex lensA curved lens in which the center is thicker than the edges.
7. resolutionThe ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object.
Notes • 1. The invention of the __________________ made it possible for people to discover and learn about ________. microscope cells
Names to know • Robert Hooke. 1663. One of the first people to observe cells. He observed a thin slice of cork using a compound microscope that he built himself. • The cork looked like tiny rectangular rooms, which he called cells.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (around the same time that Hooke made his discovery) • Observed tiny objects with microscopes. • He made his own lenses to construct simple microscopes • He looked at water from a pond and saw one-celled organisms that he called animalcules, meaning “little animals”
Matthais Schleiden (1838) –German scientist concluded that all plants are made of cells. • Theodor Schwann (1839)-German scientist that concluded that animals are made of cells.
Up until this time, people did not understand where cells came from. • Most people thought that living things could come from non living matter. • German Doctor Rudolf Virchow proposed that cells are only formed from existing cells.
The observations of Hooke, Leeuwenhoek, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow, and others let to the development of the Cell Theory. • 2. The cell theory states: • A. • B. • C. All living things are composed of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. All cells are produced from other cells
3. A microscope magnifies an object by _______________________________ Bending the light that passes through them.
convex • 4. A ____________________lens is thicker in the middle than at the edges.
resolution • 5. ____________________________ is the sharpness of an image, while _________________________ is making an image appear larger than it really is. magnification
Cells and Heredity Chapter 1 Cell Structure and Function Section 2: Looking Inside Cells
Section 2-Looking Inside Cells • Identify the roll of the cell membrane and nucleus in the cell • Describe the functions performed by other organelles in the cell • Compare bacterial cells with plant and animal cells • Describe the role of specialized cells in many celled organisms • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gFuEo2ccTPA
Vocab • 8. OrganelleA tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell.
9. Cell wallA rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
10. cell membraneA cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
11. nucleusA cell structure that contains nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that direct all the cell’s activities.
12. chromatinMaterial in cells that contains DNA and carries genetic information.
13. cytoplasmThe region between the cell membrane and the nucleus; in organisms without a nucleus, the region located inside the cell membrane.
14. mitochondriaRod-shaped cell structures that produce most of the energy needed to carry out the cell’s functions.
15. endoplasmic reticulumA cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
16. ribosomeA small grain-like structure in the cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made.
17. Golgi bodyA structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell.
18. chloroplastA structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
ADD somewhere on vocab page: • vacuoleA water-filled sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area.
19. lysosomeA small round cell structure that contains chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones.
Notes Cell membrane • 1. The ______________________ protects the cell and controls what substances enter and exit it.
nucleus • 2. The ______________________ controls all the cell’s activities.
3. See pages 26-27 in your Cells and Heredity Text. Match the organelle to its “City Function”. • 1. Cell Wall: _________ H
D • 2. Cell Membrane ________
J • 3. nucleus ________
F • 4. chromatin: ________
I • 5. mitochondria: _______
C • 6. endoplasmic reticulum :___________
B • 7. ribosomes: _________
A • 8. Golgi Bodies: ________
G • 9. chloroplasts: _______
K • 10. vacuoles: ________
E • 11. lysosomes: _______
4. The three functions of organelles are: • A. • B. • C. Produce energy Build and transport needed materials Store recycle wastes
Cells and Heredity Chapter 1 Cell Structure and Function Section 3: Chemical Compounds in Cells