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Advances in the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS™)

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Advances in the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS™)

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  1. Advances in the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS™) Roland H. Good IIIUniversity of Oregon Ruth A. Kaminski Pacific Institutes for Research NASP Workshop Dallas, TX, March 31, 2004 http://dibels.uoregon.edu

  2. Advances in DIBELS™ Overview • Introduction • Core Components of Beginning Reading • Review of DIBELS ™ Measures • Use of DIBELS™ within an Outcomes Driven Model • Assessing individual students and making instructional recommendations • Providing individual consultation to teachers • Providing systems-wide consultation to schools and districts Dallas, TX

  3. Beginning Reading Core Components #1. Phonemic Awareness:The ability to hear and manipulate sound in words. #2. Phonics:The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. #3. Fluency :The effortless, automatic ability to read words in isolation (orthographic reading) and connected text. #4. Vocabulary Development:The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. #5. Reading Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning. National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Available: http://www.nationalreadingpanel.org/. Dallas, TX

  4. Reading First:Four Kinds/Purposes of Reading Assessment An effective, comprehensive, reading program includes reading assessments to accomplish four purposes: • Outcome- Assessments that provide a bottom-line evaluation of the effectiveness of the reading program. • Screening - Assessments that are administered to determine which children are at risk for reading difficulty and who will need additional intervention. • Diagnosis - Assessments that help teachers plan instruction by providing in-depth information about students’ skills and instructional needs. • Progress Monitoring- Assessments that determine if students are making adequate progress or need more intervention to achieve grade level reading outcomes. Source: Reading First Initiative: Secretary’s Leadership Academy Dallas, TX

  5. Using an Outcomes Driven Model to Provide Decision Rules for Progress Monitoring Outcomes Driven model: Decision making steps 1. Identifying Need for Support 2. Validating Need for Instructional Support 3. Planning and Implementing Instructional Support 4. Evaluating and Modifying Instructional Support 5. Reviewing Outcomes for Individuals and Systems Good, R. H., Gruba, J., & Kaminski, R. A. (2002). Best Practices in Using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) in an Outcomes-Driven Model. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology IV (pp. 679-700). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists. Dallas, TX

  6. Using the Outcomes Driven Model 3 times per year progress monitoring - Low RiskFrequent progress monitoring - At Risk Dallas, TX

  7. Progress Monitoring Model for Beginning Reading Core Areas ISF 3 times per year progress monitoring - Low RiskFrequent progress monitoring - At Risk Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame'enui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257-288. Dallas, TX

  8. Progress Monitoring • Repeated, formative assessment to evaluate progress toward important goals for the purpose of modifying instruction or intervention. • Frequency of Progress Monitoring • 3 times per year for students at low risk (All Students) • Benchmark • 1 per month for students with some risk • Strategic • 1 per week for students at risk • Intensive Dallas, TX

  9. Research on Progress Monitoring • Progress monitoring has been extensively researched in Special Education • For example: Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of systematic formative evaluation: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 53, 199-208. • With Reading First, progress monitoring is not just for special education any more. Dallas, TX

  10. Effects of Progress Monitoring • Fuchs and Fuchs (1986) found the average effect size associated with progress monitoring was: • +0.70 for monitoring progress • +0.80 when graphing of progress was added • +0.90 when decision rules were added • A student at the 50th percentile would be expected to move to the 82nd percentile (i.e., a score of 100 would move to a score of 114) • Perhaps more important, a student at the 6th percentile would be expected to move to the average range (25th percentile)(i.e., a score of 76 would move to a score of 90) Dallas, TX

  11. Progress Monitoring Tools • Meaningful and important goals, waypoints, or benchmarks representing reading health or wellness. • Meaningful and Important • Public and Measurable • Ambitious • Brief, repeatable, formative assessment of progress toward benchmark goals that is sensitive to intervention. • Brief and Efficient • Repeatable - weekly or monthly • Reliable and Valid indication of risk and growth Dallas, TX

  12. Secretary’s Leadership AcademyAssessment Committee Team Leader Edward J. Kame’enui, University of Oregon • David Francis, University of Houston • Lynn Fuchs, Vanderbilt University • Roland Good, University of Oregon • Rollanda O’Connor, University of Pittsburgh • Deborah Simmons, University of Oregon • Gerald Tindal, University of Oregon • Joseph Torgesen, Florida State University Kameenui, E. J., Francis, D., Fuchs, L. Good, R. O’Connor, R. Simmons, D., Tindal, G., Torgesen, J. (2002). Secretary’s Leadership Academy, Reading First Initiative, Assessment Committee Presentation. US Dept. of Education: Washington, DC. Dallas, TX

  13. idea.uoregon.edu/assessment Dallas, TX

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  18. Progress Monitoring Model for Beginning Reading Core Areas ISF 3 times per year progress monitoring - Low RiskFrequent progress monitoring - At Risk Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame'enui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257-288. Dallas, TX

  19. DIBELS™ Assess the Big Ideas

  20. DIBELS™ Initial Sound FluencyDynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills™ 6th Ed.Directions for Administration and Scoring* • Initial Sound Fluency is intended for most children from the last year of preschool through the middle of kindergarten. It may be appropriate for monitoring the progress of older children with very low skills in phonological awareness. • The benchmark goal is 25 to 35 in the middle of kindergarten. Below 10 in the middle of kindergarten is indicates need for intensive instructional support. BIG IDEA of Early Reading: Phonemic Awareness

  21. DIBELS Initial Sound Fluency This is a mouse, flowers, pillow, letters (point to each picture while saying its name). Mouse begins with the sound /m/ (point to the mouse). Listen: /m/, mouse. Which one begins with the sounds /fl/? Dallas, TX

  22. Phoneme Segmentation FluencyDynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills™ 6th Ed.Directions for Administration and Scoring* • Phoneme Segmentation Fluency works well for most children from winter of kindergarten through spring of first grade. It may be appropriate for monitoring the progress of older children with low phonological awareness skills. • The benchmark goal is 35 to 45 correct phonemes per minute in the spring of kindergarten and fall of first grade. Students scoring below 10 in the spring of kindergarten and fall of first grade may need intensive instructional support to achieve benchmark goals. BIG IDEA of Early Reading: Phonemic Awareness

  23. DIBELS Phoneme Segmentation Fluency I am going to say a word. After I say it, you tell me all the sounds in the word. So, if I say, “sam,” you would say /s/ /a/ /m/. Let’s try one. (one second pause). Tell me the sounds in “mop” Ok. Here is your first word. Dallas, TX

  24. DIBELS™ Nonsense Word FluencyDynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills™ 6th Ed.Directions for Administration and Scoring* • Nonsense Word Fluency is intended for most children from spring of kindergarten through spring of first grade. It may be appropriate for monitoring the progress of older children with low skills in alphabetic principle. • The benchmark goal for Nonsense Word Fluency is 50 correct letter sounds per minute by mid first grade. Students scoring below 30 in mid first grade may need intensive instructional support to achieve first grade reading goals. BIG IDEA of Early Reading: Alphabetic Principle

  25. DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency Here are some more make-believe words(point to the student probe).Start here(point to the first word)and go across the page(point across the page).When I say, “begin”, read the words the best you can. Point to each letter and tell me the sound or read the whole word. Read the words the best you can. Put your finger on the first word. Ready, begin. Dallas, TX

  26. DIBELS™ Oral Reading FluencyDynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills™ 6th Ed.Directions for Administration and Scoring* • DIBELS™ Oral Reading Fluency is intended for most children from mid first grade through third grade. The benchmark goals are 40 in spring of kindergarten, 90 in spring of second grade, and 110 in the spring of third grade. Students may need intensive instructional support if they score below 10 in spring of first grade, 50 in spring of second grade, and below 70 in spring of third grade. BIG IDEA of Early Reading: Accuracy and Fluency with Connected Text

  27. DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency Please read this (point) out loud. If you get stuck, I will tell you the word so you can keep reading. When I say, “stop” I may ask you to tell me about what you read, so do your best reading. Start here (point to the first word of the passage). Begin. Dallas, TX

  28. DIBELS™ Retell FluencyDynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills™ 6th Ed.Directions for Administration and Scoring* • DIBELS™ Retell Fluency is intended for most children from mid first grade through third grade who are reading at least 40 words per minute. It has been developed to provide a comprehension check for the DORF Assessment. BIG IDEA of Early Reading: Comprehension

  29. DIBELS Retell Fluency Please tell me all about what you just read. Try to tell me everything you can. Begin. Start your stopwatch after you say“begin”. Dallas, TX

  30. Validity of ORF with RTF for Reading Comprehension • Desirable standards: r = .60 to .80 • First grade: ORF with consistent retell correlates with Woodcock Johnson Broad Reading Cluster r = .81 (average of 2 probes) • But, ORF with inconsistent retell correlates r = .42 • Third grade: A single probe ORF and RTF correlates with Oregon State Assessment -- Reading and Literature Subtest: r = .73 • RTF by itself generally correlates in the .20s, .30s, .40s and .50s with a variety of measures of comprehension. Dallas, TX

  31. Inconsistent Retell in First Grade Students reading more than 40 words correct per minute, typical retell is about 50% of ORF score. Consistent retell is greater than or equal to 25% of ORF score. An inconsistent retell is less than 25% of the ORF score. Dallas, TX

  32. ORF with inconsistent Retell has lower validity with Reading Outcomes ORF with consistent retell r = .81 ORF with inconsistent retell r = .42 Dallas, TX

  33. Inconsistent Retell in Third Grade Students reading more than 40 words correct per minute, typical retell is about 50% of ORF score. Consistent retell is greater than or equal to 25% of ORF score. An inconsistent retell is less than 25% of the ORF score. Dallas, TX

  34. DIBELS™ Word Use FluencyDynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills™ 6th Ed.Directions for Administration and Scoring* Word Use Fluency Word Use Fluency (WUF) is intended for most children from fall of kindergarten through third grade. A benchmark goal is not provided for WUF because additional research is needed to establish its linkage to other big ideas of early literacy. Tentatively, students in the lowest 20 percent of a school district using local norms should be considered at risk for poor language and reading outcomes and those between the 20th and 40th percentile should be considered at some risk. BIG IDEA of Early Reading: Vocabulary and Oral Language

  35. DIBELS™ Word Use Fluency • Format: Examiner orally presents word and asks child to tell a sentence using the word. • “Listen to me use this word in a sentence. Jump. I like to jump rope. Your turn to use a word in a sentence. Pool.”

  36. Word Use Fluency Bottom: Sit on your bottom (4) Anyone: Anyone can go to my party (6) Dress: Dress yourself. I’m not gonna dress you.(7) Middle: Careful that’s middle (0) Total = 40 Street: Don’t go in the street (5) Today: Today have a fun day (5) Against: You’re against me (3) Snow: I like to play in the snow (7) Bats: Bats are scary (3)

  37. K 1st 2nd 3rd WUF Distributions Dallas, TX

  38. = 2002-2003 = 2003 -2004 Statewide WUF DistributionsKindergarten 02-03/03-04 Dallas, TX

  39. = 2002-2003 = 2003 -2004 Statewide WUF DistributionsFirst Grade 02-03/03-04 Dallas, TX

  40. = 2002-2003 = 2003 -2004 Statewide WUF DistributionsSecond Grade 02-03/03-04 Dallas, TX

  41. = 2002-2003 = 2003 -2004 Statewide WUF DistributionsThird Grade 02-03/03-04 Dallas, TX

  42. Word Use FluencySummary • 1-month Alternate forms reliability = .59 - .65 • 1-week Alternate forms reliability = .65 -.71 (4-5 probes for r = .90) • Criterion-Related Validity • PPVT = .31 - .55 • TOLD = .44 - .55 • EVT = .22 - .57 • WJ-LC = .36 - .47 • WRMT Reading Comprehension = .28 - .41 • Language Sample DWR = .44 - .72 • Sensitive to growth over time in K-1 (mean slope of 3.12 words per minute per month) • Easy and practical to administer • No Benchmark goals established -- Use local norms Dallas, TX

  43. DIBELS™ Letter Naming FluencyDynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills™ 6th Ed.Directions for Administration and Scoring* • Letter Naming Fluency works well for most children from fall of kindergarten through fall of first grade. • Students are considered at risk for difficulty achieving early literacy benchmark goals if they perform in the lowest 20% of students in their district. That is, below the 20th percentile using local district norms. Students are considered at some risk if they perform between the 20th and 40th percentile using local norms. Students are considered at low risk if they perform above the 40th percentile using local norms. BIG IDEA of Early Reading: NONE; indicator of risk

  44. LNF Probes • Each probe is a random sort of 2 lower case and 2 upper case alphabets. • Lines help students to keep their place. • Serial naming and fluency aspects of the task are important.

  45. Using DIBELS™ Within an Outcomes Driven Model to Provide Decision Rules for Progress Monitoring Outcomes Driven model: Decision making steps 1. Identifying Need for Support 2. Validating Need for Instructional Support 3. Planning and Implementing Instructional Support 4. Evaluating and Modifying Instructional Support 5. Reviewing Outcomes for Individuals and Systems Good, R. H., Gruba, J., & Kaminski, R. A. (2002). Best Practices in Using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) in an Outcomes-Driven Model. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology IV (pp. 679-700). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists. Dallas, TX

  46. Three Levels of Assessment • Benchmark Assessment • Assess all children 3 - 4 times/year (e.g., Fall, Winter, Spring) • How is the program (e.g.,classroom, school, curriculum, instruction) doing overall? • Are there children who may need additional support to achieve outcomes? • Which children may need additional support to achieve outcomes? • Strategic Monitoring • Assess at risk children more frequently(e.g., monthly) • Is current program sufficient to keep progress on track or are additional supports/intervention needed? • Continuous or Intensive Care Monitoring • Assess students needing more intensive, effective intervention weekly • Are instructional supports/strategies effective or is a change in intervention needed? Dallas, TX

  47. Benchmark Assessment - First Grade • Benchmark assessment – screening all children to identify need for support to achieve goals in Core Components of literacy: phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, accuracy and fluency with connected text, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension for all children. • Beginning: September, October, or November • Middle: December, January, or February • End: March, April, May, or June Dallas, TX

  48. 1. Identifying Need for Support Key Decision for Screening Assessment: • Which children may need additional instructional support to attain important reading outcomes? Data used to inform the decision: • Compare individual student’s performance to benchmark goals or local normative context to evaluate need for additional instructional support. • Benchmark Goals: A deficit in a foundation skill is a strong indicator that instructional support will be needed to attain later benchmark goals. • Local normative context: First, choose a percentile cutoff. 20th percentile seems a good place to start, but a district could choose 15th percentile or 25th percentile or other cutoff depending on resources. Dallas, TX

  49. http://DIBELS.uoregon.edu Dallas, TX

  50. Beginning of Kindergarten Dallas, TX