Four types EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS ADULT STEM CELLS PLACENTAL STEM CELLS (Cord Blood Stem Cells) Amniotic fluid Stem cells
Three general properties: they are capable of dividing themselves for long periods; they are unspecialized; and they can give rise to specialized cell types.
TOTIPOTENT/PLURIPOTENT MULTIPOTENT QUADRIPOTENT TRIPOTENT BIPOTENT UNIPOTENT
Multipotent hematopoietic Stem cell (hemocytoblast) Common myeloid progenitor Common Lymphoid progenitor Mast cell Erythrocyte Small lymphocyte Mayeloblast Natural killer cell (Large granular Lymphocyte) B lymphocyte T lymphocyte Megakaryocyte Monocyte Eosinophil Basophil Neutrophil Plasma cell Thrombocyte Macrophage
Fundamental properties of an Embryonic Stem Cell Derived from the inner cell mass/epiblast of the blastocyst. Capable of undergoing an unlimited number of symmetrical divisions without differentiating (long-term self-renewal). Exhibit and maintain a stable, full (diploid), normal complement of chromosomes (karyotype). Pluripotent ES cells can give rise to differentiated cell types that are derived from all three primary germ layers of the embryo (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm). Capable of integrating into all fetal tissues during development. ……………………
Capable of colonizing the germ line and giving rise to egg or sperm cells. Clonogenic, that is a single ES cell can give rise to a colony of genetically identical cells, or clones, which have the same properties as the original cell. Expresses the transcription factor Oct-4, Can be induced to continue proliferating or to differentiate. Lacks the G1 checkpoint in the cell cycle. ES cells spend most of their time in the S phase of the cell cycle, during which they synthesize DNA. Unlike differentiated somatic cells, ES cells do not require any external stimulus to initiate DNA replication. Do not show X inactivation. In every somatic cell of a female mammal, one of the two X chromosomes becomes permanently inactivated. X inactivation does not occur in undifferentiated ES cells.
Stem Cell Markers c-Kit Oct4 (ATGCAAAT) POU Family Protein CD34 CD38 Cd44 CD133 Nestin
SEPARATION OF STEM CELL Stem cell Cells in suspension are tagged with fluorescent markers specific for undifferentiated stem cell FLUROSCENT ACTIVATED CELL SORTING Labeled cells are sent under pressure through a small nozzle and pass through an electric field Laser beam passes through one cell A cell generates a negative charge if it fluoresces and a positive charge if it does not.
Diseases that are treated by stem cells are: 1) Acute Leukemia • Acute Lymphoblast Leukemia (ALL)• Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)• Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia • Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia 2) Chronic Leukemia • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)• Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)• Juvenile Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (JCML) • Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)Syndromes• Myelodysplastic Syndromes• Amyloidosis• Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML)• Refractory Anemia (RA)• Refractory Anemia with Excess Blasts (RAEB)• Refractory Anemia with Excess Blasts in Transformation • (RAEB-T)• Refractory Anemia with Ringed Sideroblasts (RARS)
Disorders 1) Stem Cell Disorders • Aplastic Anemia (Severe)• Fanconi Anemia • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria • Congenital Cytopenia• Dyskeratosis Congenita 2) Myeloproliferative Disorders • Acute Myelofibrosis • Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia • Polycythemia Vera • Essential Thrombocythemia 3) Lymphoproliferative Disorders • Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma • Hodgkin’s disease • Prolymphocytic Leukemia 4) Phagocyte Disorders • Chediak-Higashi Syndrome • Chronic Granulomatous Disease • Neutrophil Actin Deficiency • Reticular Dysgenesis 5) Inherited Metabolic Disorders • Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) • Hurler’s Syndrome (MPS-IH) • Scheie Syndrome (MPS-IS) • Hunter’s Syndrome (MPS-II) • Sanfilippo Syndrome (MPS-III) • Morquio Syndrome (MPS-IV)• Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome (MPS-VI)• Sly Syndrome, Beta-Glucuronidase Deficiency • Adrenoleukodystrophy • Mucolipidosis II (I-cell Disease)• Krabbe Disease • Gaucher’s Disease • Niemann-Pick Disease • Wolman Disease • Metachromatic Leukodystrophy 6) Histiocytic Disorders • Familial Erythrophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis • Histiocytosis-X • Hemophagocytosis• Langerhans’ Cell Histiocytosis
7) Inherited Immune System Disorders • Ataxia-Telangiectasia• Kostmann Syndrome• Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency • DiGeorge Syndrome • Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome • Omenn’s Syndrome• Severe Combined Immunodeficiency • SCID with Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency• Absence of T & B Cells SCID • Absence of T Cells, Normal B Cell SCID• Common Variable Immunodeficiency • Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome• X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disorder Other Inherited Disorders • Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome • Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia • Glanzmann Thrombasthenia • Osteopetrosis• Adrenoleukodystrophy• Ceroid Lipofuscinosis• Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria• Sandhoff Disease 9) Plasma Cell Disorders • Multiple Myeloma • Plasma Cell Leukemia • Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia• Amyloidosis Abnormalities 1) Inherited Platelet Abnormalities Congenital Thrombocytopenia 2) Inherited Erythrocyte Abnormalities • Beta Thalassemia Major • Sickle Cell Disease• Blackfan-Diamond Anemia• Pure Red Cell Aplasia Other Malignancies • Ewing Sarcoma • Neuroblastoma• Renal Cell Carcinoma• Retinoblastoma• Brain tumor• Ovarian Cancer• Small Cell Lung Cancer• Testicular Cancer
STEM CELL DISORDERS Aplastic anemia Fanconi anemia Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Hirschsprung's Disease Congenital CytopeniaDyskeratosis Congenita