Chapter 8 History By: Colton Cogdill
Cycladic Culture • The Cyclades are located east of the Greek main lands. • All that is know about the Cyclades is from studying artifacts. • The Cyclades made most of their living from fishing and trading. • At about 2000 B.C. the Cycladic culture began to weaken.
Minoan Culture • The Minoans began in Crete. • Minoan culture began as an agriculture one. • In 2000 B.C. they started to build large palaces. • The Minoans were excellent sailors.
Mycenaean Culture • The culture started in 1900 B.C. • They adopted Minoan ways through trade. • The Mycenaeans also built palaces. • Like the Minoans, they sailed the Mediterranean Sea. They did this to trade, start settlements, and have war.
Trojan Culture • Located in Troy. • The city had thick walls surrounding it. • They traded and farmed. • Troy is described in the Iliad and the Odyssey • Homer wrote these.
Rise of City States • City States were formed as people living in villages. • The villages had forts for protection. • Eventually, they grew into cities. • The best known city states were Athens and Sparta.
Athens and Sparta • Sparta was located in the Peloponnesian Peninsula. • Sparta was made up of 3 classes. • Sparta used an oligarchy. • Athens was governed by aristocracy. • Athens had classes based on wealth. • Athens also made the first democracy.
To Be Greek • The city states were independent so people thought of themselves as independent. • All of the city states shared an ancestor, his name was Hellen. • Believed in Greek gods like Zeus and Aphrodite and other ones. • The Olympic Games were started by them.
Persian Wars • For hundreds of years Greek city states . • Common enemy was Persia. • The Persians had more soldiers but the Athenians beat them. • To protect themselves they formed leagues or allies.
The Age of Pericles • In 460 B.C. Pericles was elected ruler. • He introduced pay for officials. • In time all government officials were paid. • His change allowed non wealthy people to serve.
Achievements and End of the Golden Age • Build cities, created sad and comical poems, and Hippocrates said illness was from natural things. • The Golden age ended because Sparta and Athens went to war and leaders made poor choices so the city state weakened.
Greek Philosophers • Socrates called himself gadfly after an insect that bit a horse. He did this to “sting” the Athenians. Then he got ordered to drink poison to kill himself. • Plato thought leaders should have a good character and later in life he started an academy. • Aristotle entered the academy but disagreed with Plato about the kinds of knowledge that were most important.
Making and Building of An Empire • Alexander was born in 360 B.C. • Interested in many subjects. • He became ruler at age 18. • In 334 B.C. he led a huge army to defeat Persia and he won. • One by one he conquered many places.
The End of An Empire • Alexander the Great ruled a large area. • He led his army to Bactria and married Roxane. • He planned to go to the Ganges River, but his soldiers didn’t follow so he went home. • He was very disappointed.
Alexander’s Legacy • Alexander was a great and strong ruler. • He conquered many places. • He and his army came across many different cultures and then the Greeks way of life influenced them. • That is why this time is called the Hellenistic Age.