The Ancient GreeksHistory chapter 8 By:Taylin Montague
Lesson1: Cycladic Culture • The Cycladic are a large group of 200 islands east of Greek mainland in the Aegean Sea. • The people made their living by trading. Fishing, farming, and craft workers. • After 2000B.C. the culture began to weaken. • As this was going on, the people started to follow the traditions of dominant, or more powerful cultures.
Lesson1: Minoan Culture • The culture began on the island of Crete in 1700B.C. • The name Minoan was from the King of Crete Minos. • The farming villages formed into cities. • They had a counting system and a writing system. • No one can read the oldest Minoan tablet.
Lesson1:Mycenaean Culture • The culture got its name from the city of Mycenae. • The city was located on the southern peninsula of Greece. • The culture was started in 1900B.C. • By about the 1500s the Mycenaeans became the dominant culture. • They took over cultures like the Minoans. • In About 1200B.C. the culture suddenly came to an end.
Lesson1: Trojan Culture • The Trojan culture was centered in the city of Troy. From as early as 2900B.C. Troy was surrounded by thick walls. • The people of Troy farmed, raised horses, and traded with the Mycenaeans. • The story of The Trojan Horse For ten years the Mycenaeans tried to capture Troy. Then the Mycenaeans built a giant wooded horse and hid inside it. The Trojans took the horse as a peace offering and brought it into the city. Over night the Mycenaeans crawled out and attacked the city. They then defeated the Trojans.
Lesson2: Rise of City-States • City-states were formed from neighboring villages trying to protect themselves. • Normally theses city-states were graded by stone walls. They also were built a hilltop around an acropolis (high city). • These cities had an agora, houses, and public buildings. Beyond the acropolis were farmlands and small villages. • Cities would fight over the that lay between them.
Lesson2: Sparta • The city-state of Sparta was located inland of the Peloponnesian Peninsula. • Sparta had a military economy. • The people lived simple lives of hard work and physical activity. • The society was made up of three classes. Only males in the ruling class were citizens. • Spartan boys began military training at age 6 to 7.
Lesson2: Athens • The city-state of Athens was located on Attica, a part of the Balkan Peninsula. • In 594B.C. the people of Athens asked a leader named Solon to make changes in the government to end there struggles. • The Athenians wanted a larger part in making decisions. • Athens then became the first to have a democracy.
Lesson2: To Be Greek • In English their language and civilization are known as Greek. • They call themselves Hellenes and their country Hellas named after their common ancestor named Hellen. • The Greeks believe in gods. • The Olympic Games were held every four years in honor of Zeus.
Lesson3:Persian Wars • A common enemy Persia brought the Greek people together for a time. • King Darius I turned his solders to the Greek mainland. • The out numbered Athenians defeated the Persian solders in one day. • Legend of the battle says that a messenger ran from Marathon to Athens. • Today people call a 26 mile run a marathon.
Lesson3: Age of Pericles • After the defeat of the Persians there was a great since of pride. During this time Athens was ruled by Pericles. • Pericles wanted to continue the democratic reform of his relative Cleisthenes. • During his term of leadership he introduced pay for public officials. • He was a supporter of learning and arts.
Lesson3:Golden Age • Herodotus was a historical writer. • Herodotus and others wrote about Sophocles(tragedies). • Aristophanes wrote comedies. • Then the plague swept through Athens and killed many people including Pericles. • After that a Athens began to fallow demagogues.
Lesson3: Greek Philosophers • A philosopher is a great thinker. • They also loved wisdom. • One great philosopher Socrates criticized the government into getting Athenians to think about the best way to live. • The government thought these were dangerous ideas and ordered him to deth by drinking poison.
Lesson4:An Empire • At age 18 Alexander commanded the Calvary. • After his father Philip was murdered his rule was past to Alexander in 336B.C. • Alexander’s army attacked the rebelling city of Thebes and destroyed it, 30,000 citizens were sold into slavery. • Alexander conquered many areas to bring under Greek rule. After Darius’s death Alexander became the most powerful ruler in southwestern Asia, earning him the name Alexander the Great.
Lesson4: End of the Empiire • With as much area Alexander ruled he still wanted more. • In 327 B.C. Alexander married the Bactrian princess Roxane. • In 323 B.C. Alexander past away, it is said that a solider asked “who will rule the empire.” His answer “the strongest.” • No leader proved to be strong enough and the empire was divided.
Lesson4:Alexander’s Legacy • Alexander brought Greek language and custom to many cultures. • Alexander influenced museums were scholars wrote books and exchange ideas. • Hellenistic scientist used mathematics to estimate the distance around earth. • In 146B.C. the Romans ganed control of a large portian of land once ruled by Greeks.