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Ancient Greeks

Ancient Greeks

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Ancient Greeks

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Ancient Greeks • Athenian Democracy

  2. Solon • archon 594/3 B.C. • seisachtheia—“shaking-off of burdens” • Liberated the hektēmoroi—“sixth-parters” • Toppled the horoi—“boundary stones”—of Attika • Granted citizenship to immigrant craftsmen • Banned export of agricultural products other than olive oil • Compiled a new code of laws that superseded Draco’s code of 621 B.C. • Created a process for public appeals of magistrates’ verdicts in the ēliaia

  3. Solon’s organization of Athenian citizenry • Four census classes based on wealth: • pentakosiomedimnoi—“five-hundred-measures-men” • hippeis—“horesmen” • zeugitai—“yokemen” • thetes—“poor” • Boulē—Council of 400 • Areopagos Council

  4. Athenian law • Archaeological evidence from the Agora Museum in Athens • klepsydra—“water clock” • bronze juror ballots • pinakia—“identification tablets” • kleoterion—“allotment machine”

  5. The consequences of Solon’s reforms • Solon and Croesus (Herodotus 1.30-33) • Pisistratos—tyrant of Athens • Hippias and Hipparkhos • The Tyrannicides, Harmodios and Aristogeiton

  6. Cleisthenes • Takes power from political rival Isagoras in 508 B.C. • Dēmokratia—“power of the people” • demes—villages or city neighborhoods • phylai—“tribes”: increased from four to ten • trittyes—“thirds”: coast, inland, and city • Council of 500

  7. Athenian Assembly • Ekklēsia—Athenian Assembly where all citizens (excluding women, children, and slaves) were free to discuss the issues, vote, and put decisions into action. • Pnyx (hill where legislature met • Bema—“speaker’s platform”

  8. Democracy • Pericles’ Funeral Oration (epitaphios logos)—Thucydides 2.34-46 • Male citizens - 11% • Women & Children - 24% • Metics - 10% • Slaves - 54%

  9. Comparison

  10. Sources for Athenian History and Democracy • Anderson, Greg. The Athenian Experiment: Building an Imagined Political Community in Ancient Attica, 508-490 B.C. (Ann Arbor, 2003). • Camp, John, and Elizabeth Fisher. The World of the Ancient Greeks (London, 2002). • Forrest, W. G. The Emergence of Greek Democracy (London, 1966). • Pomeroy, Sarah, Stanley Burstein, Walter Donlan, and Jennifer Roberts. Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History (New York, 1998).