Chapter 8-1 - The Rise of City-States • The largest Greek peninsula is the Peloponnesian Peninsula. • Peninsula – a piece of land surrounded by water on 3 sides.
A Rugged Land • Mainland Greece is divided by mountain ranges. In between the ranges are narrow valleys and small plains. • Good for sheep and goats but too rocky for farming. • Mountains created lowland communities. They were very independent Greeks, never uniting under one government. • The Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea, & Ionian Sea helped Greeks become skillful sailors and merchants.
Early Greek History • Minoans were highly advanced. • Writing system & built huge stone palaces with running water - palaces and towns mysteriously disappeared in 1450 B.C. Historians believe mainland Greeks had something to do with the destruction. - The Mycennaean civilization developed in 1600 B.C.
Early Greek History (continued) • Mycenaean towns were ruled by a monarchy – government headed by a king. • Lived in stone fortresses on hilltops overlooking their towns. • Created bronze weapons and pottery • Traded those goods for copper, ivory, and luxury goods from other lands. • Mycenaean kingdoms eventually became weak and in 1100 B.C. they were destroyed by newcomers from the north known as Dorians
The Dark Ages – 1100BC to 750BC • Greek culture declined after the fall of the Mycenaeans and people lost the ability to read and write. • Mainland Greeks migrated across the Aegean Sea settling on the islands and west coast of Asia Minor. (eventually became known as Ionia). • People still spoke Greek and passed stories down orally. • Geometric designs on pottery • Becomes more elaborate over time • Eventually incorporates living creatures (birds, horses) • Human figures appear around 750
The Trojan War • Legend of the Trojan War • Mycenaean kingdoms sailed across the Aegean Sea to Troy, a city in Asia Minor. • The 10 year conflict ended when the Greeks tricked the Trojans into accepting a gift of a large wooden horse. • Greeks hiding the horse crept out and opened the city gate. • The Greek army entered and burned the city of Troy down. • For hundreds of years the war was sung about and stories were told. • 700BC. – Greeks develop an alphabet based on the Pheonician alphabet.
Homer • Homer was a poet that shaped the stories of the Trojan War into a long epic poem, the Iliad, which was eventually written down. • The Iliad tells of events during the war but stops between the Greek’s victory. • The Odyssey shaped Greek culture. • Students learned verses by heart • Values like courage, bravery, strength, and honor were ideals that all Greek’s tried to live up to…. Like those described in Homer’s stories.
Emergence of City-States • Greek communities began to organize into a polis – a city-state • Created everywhere Greeks settled • Government of a Polis • Ruled over a wide area (its city and surrounding villages and countryside) • Marketplace and government center was in each polis • Citizens – members of a city-state that had legal rights • Population of a polis was typically small • All citizens of the polis would gather together to make decisions
The High City • Typical polis was built on two levels • Acropolis – “high city” • Public buildings and temples were located in the acropolis • Lower ground – homes, shops, farms
Government and Politics • Politics – the art and practice of government • Each city-state had a different kind of government • In early times a polis was governed by an aristocracy – a hereditary class of rules • However, in some city-states, people began to govern themselves. • Self-government • Citizens ruled instead of priests and kings
Social Class System • Citizens – could vote • Women and foreigners – could not vote • Slaves – few rights • The polis was the framework of a Greek’s life. • Greek’s believed that a good citizen should always be willing to sacrifice for his city.
Chapter 8-2 – Greek Economy and Society • Women in Ancient Greece • Role: • worked outdoors on farms or sold goods in markets • Athenian women – women from rich families stayed home while men were a part of public life. • Women also supervised the household, raised the children, kept track of money and spending, and managed the slaves. • Made the meals and clothing for the family. • Status: • lower than men • Rights: • Athenian women had very little rights • Spartan women could sell property, were educated and trained in sports.
The Aristocracy • Roles: • Kings, gods, people of other higher status in society (political leaders) • Status: • Highest status in society below gods and kings. • Owned large plots of land • Lots of free time for leisure activities. • Rights: • Could hold political office
Citizens Role: • Men • Farmers who owned large areas of land • Small tenant farmers Status: • Large tenant farmers held higher status • Small tenant farmers held lower social status Rights: • All citizens had the right to vote
Foreign-born • Roles: • merchants, artisans • Status: • Above slaves below citizens • Rights: • More rights than slaves
Slaves • Roles: • Complete hard work in homes and or fields • Prisoners of war or sold by their families • Status: • Lowest status • Rights: • none
Chapter 9-3 Ancient Greek Beliefs and Arts • Greeks practiced polytheism – belief in many gods or dieties. • Deities – beings with supernatural powers • Greek gods looked and behaved like human beings • Greeks expressed their religious beliefs in their mythology. • Mythology is a collection of myths or stories that people tell about their gods and heroes.
Greek gods and goddesses • Zues • Father of the many other gods; bringer of storms; god of justice • Hera • Wife of Zues and queen of the gods; goddess of marriage • Athena • Daughter of Zues; goddess of wisdom and protector of cities • Apollo • God of prophecy, music, and poetry; god of light • Artemis • Twin sister of Apollo; goddess of hunting and childbirth • Poseidon • Brother of Zues; god of the sea • Ares • God of war • Aphrodite • Goddess of love and beauty • Hermes • Messenger of the gods; patron of merchants; protector of travelers • Demeter • Goddess of agriculture and the harvest • Hephaestus • God of fire and of craft workers • Hestia • Goddess of the hearth
Greek Religion and Life • Gods were honored with public and private religious rituals • Public meetings began with prayers and animal sacrifices • Families would maintain shrines where they would honor their favorite gods or goddesses. • Temples were built in each city-state • On holy days, citizens made sacrifices in front of the gods’ temples. • Offered gold, cakes and wine, or prized animals such as bulls • They would ask the gods favors such as good crops or good health.
Athletic Contests • Some religious festivals also included athletic contests • Boxing, wrestling, running • Wanted to display their skill and strength to honor the gods. • Most famous sporting events – The Olympics • Honored Zues • Took place every four years • During the games, all conflicts between city-states would stop. • Travelers from all over came to attend the games • The festival took place at Olympia • Winners became famous or celebrities • Successful athletes were rewarded with privilege and fame, not money
Sacred Sites • Greeks considered groves of trees, springs, and other places to be sacred because they were home to a god or spirit • Mt. Olympus • Home to major gods • Delphi • Contains the holy temple of Apollo. • Housed Apollo’s priestess Delphic oracle • Someone who predicts the future • People would travel from all over Greece to ask questions about their future
Arts of Ancient Greece • Architecture • Doric order • Ionic order * Corinthian order
Before Democracy • Oligarchy • Type of government in which power is within the hands of a small group of people like the aristocrats. • Headed by a council of leaders • Draco – famous leader that created a legal code that specified harsh punishments • Draconian is used today to describe harsh laws
Before Democracy • Phalanx • As time progressed, power began to shift into the hands of more people. • This may have happened because of the way the Greek armies were organized. • 700 B.C. – phalanx was introduced • A formation of heavily armed foot soldiers who moved together as a unit. • Usually lined up to form a row of overlapping shields. • Shield was held in left hand, sword in right hand. Used to protect neighbor • Fighters in a phalanx didn’t have to be rich because they were foot soldiers – didn’t need a horse
Before Democracy • Tyranny • Tyrants – strong leaders • Did not allow others to play a significant part in government • In Greece, many governed fairly and worked to improve life for ordinary people. • Many tyrants find they are unable to fulfill their promises • Usually members of the aristocracy • Tyrannies – governments run by a strong ruler
Power of the People • Democracy • As tyrannies faded, democracy came to head – rule by the people • 594BC • Solon chosen to lead the polis • He reformed the courts • End the practice of selling poor people who could not pay their debts into slavery • Gave some non-aristocratic men the right to vote. • 508BC • Cleisthenes gained power in Athens • Several reforms that reduced the power of the rich • Increased the number of people that could vote • Increased the power of the assembly (law making body of government) • 461BC • Citizen juries created • Jury – group of people who hear evidence and decide a court case • This new system put the power of making legal decisions in the hands of the people.
Power of the People • Pericles • 450BC • Paid citizens for participating in jury service and other civic duties, which helped poor people take a part in government. • Gave a speech in 431 BC in which he explained how democratic values made Athens more unique • Citizenship • Membership in a community • Gives people rights and responsibilities • Greeks gave ordinary people the right to help make government decisions.
Athenian Democracy at Work • The Assembly • Main political body Athens • All free adult male citizens could attend • Meetings took place 40 times a year • Everyone who attended had the right to speak • The Boule • 500 person council • Helped decide which issues should go to the Assembly. • Members were chosen at random • The Courts • Many different courts with different types of cases • Juries decided cases by majority vote • Juries then were much larger with hundreds to thousands of people
A Limited Democracy • Women could not vote • Foreigners could not be citizens • Slaves had no rights • Direct democracy – citizens participate directly in decision making • Less practical in large nations like United States • Representative democracies – citizens elect others to represent them in government • Modern democracies share the Athenian ideal of rule by the people.
Oligarchy in Sparta • Athens was a city near the coast, making Athenians great a sea trade and warfare. • Sparta was quite the opposite, being an inland city-state. • Sparta was ruled by two kings, in which the kings were considered to be the military leaders. • Sparta had a population of about 9000 people while Athens was much larger with about 45000 people.
Spartan Assembly • Athens was a democracy while Sparta was an oligarchy. • Spartan assembly had much less power than Athenians. It could pass laws, but the council had to approve them. • The assembly elected ephors who were responsible for the day to day operations of the government. They made sure the kings and council acted within the limits of Spartan law. They could also remove kings who broke the laws.
Military Conquests • Spartans conquered neighboring city-states like Messenia. • The Messenians they conquered were forced to farm the land and turn over half the food they raised to Sparta. They were called helots. • They were treated harshly and made to wear dogskin caps to show their low status.
Spartan Education • Athenian boys were well-rounded in education. • In Sparta, boys were taken from their families at age 7 to train for the military. • Spent most of their time exercising, hunting, and training with weapons. They were taught to obey orders instead of learning to think for themselves. • At age 18, boys began a 2 year military training to become part of a phalanx. • They could get married during this time, but they were not allowed to spend a lot of time at home. • Allowed to leave the army at age 30, but still spent most of their time with men
Social Classes & Women • When men left the school system, they had to pass a test to become a citizen in which they had to gain entry into a men’s club of soldiers. If they failed, they were considered inferior and lived as outcasts. • Men who won election to a men’s club became known as “equals” in which they had all citizen rights. • This included entry into the Assembly and the right to own a piece of land worked on by helots. • Spartan women were much different than Athenian women who were expected to stay indoors and have few rights. • Spartan women were raised to be strong. They participated in sports so they could stay fit to have healthy babies that would grow into good soldiers.
Sparta & Athens • The discipline and training Spartans went through made them strong and powerful, but society as a whole feared individuality. They valued people who fit into society, not those that stood out. • Due to this fact, Sparta’s oligarchy had very little change over time and society didn’t change much. • The rivalry between Sparta and Athens leads to war between the two city-states.