The Ancient Greeks Chapter 4
What they did… • Fished • Sailed • Traded • Farmed- rocky soil made it difficult • Wheat, barley, olives, grapes • Sheep, goats
Minoans First to arise in region Made wealth from trade Sailed as far as Egypt and Syria Historians debate if they were washed away by undersea earthquakes or if their civilization was destroyed by the Mycnaeans
Mycenaens Became 1st Greek Kings around 1900 bce From central Asia Organized around a fortified palace on a hill Powerful traders Excellent in battle Later declined into dark age from declining trade and poverty…between 1100 and 750 bce
Greek Citizenship Shift from subjects to citizens is new concept developed Applied to free, native-born, land holding men Could vote and pass laws Own property Hold office Defend themselves on court In return had to serve in government and be soldiers
Hoplites 700 bce Armies increasingly composed of Hoplites, citizen soldiers Heavily armed foot soldiers that carried sword, shield and long spear Fought shoulder to shoulder and formed wall Took pride in fighting for their city-state
Sparta • Oligarchy- power is held by small group • 2 kings and council of elders • Military is central institution • Boys joined at 7 and returned home at 30 • Harsh training and strict discipline… 126 • Lagged in trade, science, and arts
Athens • A budding Democracy • Moves towards citizen council and away from rule by wealthy land owners • Influence many future western civilizations • Less militaristic than Spartans • Focused on all aspects of education • Math • Science • Art • Literature….
Growth of Persia Cyrus the Great united Persians into powerful Kingdom and ruled 559 bce to 530 bce Powerful army but a just ruler helped keep empire together Miles of road connected empire
Darius Came to power in 521 bce Very large army Personal guard of 10,000 called immortals Reorganized empire into 20 provinces called Satripes, ruled by satraps
Persians and Greeks Clash Battle of Marathon in 490 bce Battle of Themopylae in 480 bce was beginning of Persian intrusion by Xerses Battle of Plataea- drove Persians out Persia is ultimately its own worst enemy- becomes to large, rulers too extravagant, taxes to high, and eternal fighting weaken empire from within
Delian League Alliance of Greek city states that help drive out Persians Unites Greeks
Direct Democracy People voted on matters concerning daily and civic life Innovative form of gov’t Better for smaller populations WOULD NOT WORK IN U.S.
Pericles- Golden Age Led Athens from 461 bce- 429 bce Made Athens very powerful in Delian League Allowed less wealthy to participate Age of creativity and learning Started major rebuilding program Supported arts
Life in Athens Most populous city state- close to 300,000 Slavery was common Many farmed and raised sheep and goats Trade flourished in Athens Athenian men lived social lives Women usually confined to home where life revolved around family
Peloponnesian War Sparta and other city states grow suspicious and resent the wealth and power of Athens Lasted from 431 BCE to 404 BCE Athens stayed in city and fought off Sparta and other aggressors Sparta is helped by Persia and assembles a navy that destroyed Athenian fleet and also won other land battles-405 BCE Weakened all involved and made it impossible for Greek city states to unite