The Ancient Greeks By Caleb Phillips
The Cycladic Culture The Cycladic culture was formed around 3000 B.C.. They lived on about 200 islands east of The Greek mainland They made a living by fishing and trading. Some did farming were they grew grapes, olives, and other crops. Around 2000 B.C. they started to weaken the people started to follow the customs of their neighboring cultures.
The Minoan Culture The Minoan culture began on Crete a large island that lies about 60 miles southeast of the Greek mainland. They started as an agricultural society. Over time villages grew into cities. In about 2000 B.C. they started to build huge palaces. Historians can tell that they were also sailors from the pictures on the walls inside their palaces. They had their own writing and counting system to keep track of their trading records. By 1100 B.C. their culture disappeared.
The Mycenaean Culture The Mycenaean culture got their name from the city of Mycenae. They did a lot of trading and while trading with different cultures they followed the Minoans ways. That meant they built palaces. Like the Minoans they sailed so they could trade goods.
The Trojans The Trojan culture was located in a city called Troy. They farmed, raised horses, and herded sheep. A man named Homer tolled stories about battles in the Trojan culture. Homer tolled a story were the Mycenaeans left a huge horse at their gates with soldiers in side.
Lesson 2 City-States The development of classical Greece was the rise of the city-states. Over time Villages grew into cities. The city-states that neighbored each other fought over land in between them. Out of all the most powerful city-states was Sparta and Athens.
Sparta Most city-states were located in costal areas. There city-state was made up of three classes the ruling class, slaves, and the travelers. Out of all the city-states Sparta was the only one with a standing army. Sparta’s governing system was an oligarchy.
Athens Athens was located on Attica northeast of Peloponnesus. they were ruled by an aristocracy, or a small group of wealthy men. After a ruler named solon divided Them into groups. After a while they became a democracy. They were the first to have a democracy.
To Be Greek • Since the city-states were independent they didn’t see them selves as a country. • Historians say that they all had the same ancestor named Hellen. • For that reason they named them selves the Hellenes. • In addition to their language and mythology they had other activities together. For that reason they had the Olympic games.
Lesson 3 The Golden AgeThe Persian Wars • For hundreds of years the Greek city-states fought over land and trade. Then in the 500s B.C. one enemy brought them together. • Citizens and soldiers from Athens met Persian warriors on the plain of Marathon and defeated them. • In 485 B.C. the Persians tried to invade Balkan Peninsula again. • Before fighting them some city-states made plans of protections.
The Age of Pericles • The Athenians felt grate pride in their new leadership after defeating the Persians. • Through most of their time Pericles led them through most of their problems. • In 460 B.C. He became the leader. • In 457 B.C. he gave men of any class the right to have a government place.
Achievements of the Golden Age • Pericles was a patron, or a supporter of learning and arts. • He also supported writers such as Herodotus, Herodotus was an early historian that kept history of the Persian wars. • Today people still read his work and other writers from then. • During the Golden age scientists studied nature and human life. • One of the grate scientists was Hippocrates. He found out that getting sick was not a punishment from their gods.
The End of the Golden Age • Pericles wanted Athens to be more then the school of Greece. He wanted them to be the most powerful city-state of Greece. • For that he sent warriors out to defeat other countries. • In 431 B.C. Sparta and its allies went to war with Athens and its allies. In 430 B.C. the deadliest disease broke out and killed a lot of Athenians died Pericles did to. • In 404 B.C. Athens surrendered to the Spartans.
The Greek Philosophers • After the big war between Athens and Sparta there was still a lot of smart people around. • They were called Philosophers. One of them named Socrates called himself the cities gadfly after an insect bit his horse that made it jump. • He forced the government to think about life. • One of his students named Plato was disappointed in the leaders after Pericles. • He thought the ruler should be wise.
Lesson 4The Making of an Emperor • Alexander was born in 356 B.C. in Macedonia his father was Phillips ll. • Alexander had his own teacher Aristotle and like his teacher he was interested in many subjects. • Alexander learned about countries and people. He learned how to be a fearless warrior from his father. • In 338 B.C. he commanded the cavalry or soldiers who fought on horse back.
Alexander's father wanted to defeat the Persian Empire in Asia before he could he was killed by one of his body guards. • Alexander was handed the thrown.
The Building of and Empire • With the Greek city-states under his control, Alexander decided to complete his fathers wish to defeat Persia. • His army had defeated the Persian Empire and one by one he stated to conquer along the coast of Asia Minor. • By 333 B.C. he had reached the coast of Syria and went to Phoenicia to get their port cities. • He conquered Egypt, Persian cities, and then he went to the Caspian sea to find Darius. • He Became the most powerful ruler in southwestern Asia.
The End of the Empire • Alexander the Great ruled a wide area but he wanted more. • In 326 B.C. were on the move they reached the upper Indus River Alexander wanted to push on but his army got tired and he ordered them to head home. • In 323 B.C. Alexander became ill. He died shortly after his thirty third birthday.