Chapter 1 The Ancient Greeks
The First Civilizations Chapter Introduction Section 1 Early Humans Section 2 Mesopotamian Civilization Section 3 The First Empires Reading Review Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
The First Civilizations Chapter Objectives • Explain how learning to farm changed the way early peoples lived. • Describe the development of the first major civilizations in Mesopotamia’s river valleys. • Describe the rise and fall of the Assyrian and Chaldean Empires.
Early Humans Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the world’s earliest humans and relates their change from nomadic hunters to farmers.
Early Humans Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive. • In the Neolithic Age, people started farming, building communities, producing goods, and trading.
Early Humans Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Jericho (JEHR•ih•KOH) • Çatal Hüyük (chah•TAHL hoo•YOOK)
Early Humans Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • historian (hih•STOHR•ee•uhn) • archaeologist (AHR•kee•AH•luh•jihst) • artifact (AHR•tih•FAKT) • fossil (FAH•suhl) • anthropologist (AN•thruh•PAH•luh•jihst) • nomad (NOH•MAD)
Early Humans Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • technology (tehk•NAH•luh•jee) • domesticate (duh•MEHS•tih•KAYT) • specialization (SPEH•shuh•luh•ZAY•shuhn)
Early Humans Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Determine Cause and Effect Draw a diagram like the one on page 8 of your textbook. Use it to explain how early humans adapted to their environment.
Early Humans Early Humans • History is the story of humans in the past, and historians are the people who study and write about humans of the past. • Archaeologists hunt for evidence buried in the ground. (pages 9–11)
Early Humans Early Humans (pages 9–11)
Early Humans Early Humans (cont.) • Anthropologists study how humans developed and related to each other. • The early period of human history is called the Stone Age. • The earliest part of the Stone Age is called the Paleolithic period. • Paleolithic people were nomads, traveling from place to place to hunt and search for food. (pages 9–11)
Early Humans Early Humans (cont.) • Paleolithic women cared for children and gathered berries, nuts, and grains. • Paleolithic men hunted animals using clubs, spears, traps, and bows and arrows. • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment. (pages 9–11)
Early Humans Early Humans (cont.) • Those in warm climates wore little clothing and had little need for shelter. • Those in cold climates used caves for shelter. • Over time, they learned to create shelters from animal hides and wooden poles. (pages 9–11)
Early Humans Early Humans (cont.) • Paleolithic people discovered fire, which kept them warm, lit the darkness, and cooked food. • Long periods of extreme cold are called the Ice Ages. • During the Ice Ages, thick sheets of ice covered parts of Europe, Asia, and North America. (pages 9–11)
Early Humans Early Humans (cont.) • Paleolithic people developed spoken language and expressed themselves through art, which may have had religious meaning. • During this time, humans created tools such as spears and hand axes using stone called flint. (pages 9–11)
Early Humans How did spoken language help the Paleolithic people? Language made it easier for people to work together and pass on knowledge.
Early Humans Neolithic Times • In the beginning of the Neolithic Age, people began to domesticate, or tame, animals. • Domesticated animals carried goods and provided meat, milk, and wool. • People in different parts of the world began growing crops about the same time. • Historians call this change the farming revolution. (pages 13–15)
Early Humans Neolithic Times (cont.) • Because farmers needed to stay close to their fields, they built permanent homes in villages. • One of the oldest villages is Jericho in present-day Israel and Jordan. • Another Neolithic village is Çatal Hüyük in present-day Turkey. • Permanent villages provided people with security and steady food. (pages 13–15)
Early Humans Neolithic Times (cont.) • The surplus food led to a larger population. • Not all people in a village were farmers. • Some made pottery, mats, and cloth. • They traded these goods for things they did not have. (pages 13–15)
Early Humans Neolithic Times (cont.) • People continued to create new technology. • They created better farming tools and began working with metal, copper, and tin. • They also began working with bronze. (pages 13–15)
Early Humans Why was farming important to the Neolithic people? Farming allowed people to settle in one place, and it provided a steady food supply.
Early Humans Who are archaeologists and what do they study? Archaeologists are scientists who hunt for, dig up, and study artifacts.
Early Humans How did domesticating animals help the Neolithic people? Animals supplied meat, milk, and wool. They also carried goods and pulled carts.
Early Humans Explain Why were Paleolithic people nomads? They moved around to hunt animals and gather other foods.
Early Humans Compare Compare the technology of the Paleolithic Age with that of the Neolithic Age? Paleolithic: stone, bone, and wooden tools and weapons; Neolithic: metal tools and weapons
Early Humans Analyze Why was the ability to make a fire so important? Fire kept humans warm, scared animals away, and was used to cook food.
Early Humans Summarize the impact of farming on the human race.
Mesopotamian Civilization Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes Mesopotamia, one of the regions where the world’s earliest civilizations developed.
Mesopotamian Civilization Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Civilization in Mesopotamia began in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. • Sumerians invented writing and made other important contributions to later peoples. • Sumerian city-states lost power when they were conquered by outsiders.
Mesopotamian Civilization Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Tigris River (TY•gruhs) • Euphrates River (yu•FRAY•teez) • Mesopotamia • (MEH•suh•puh•TAY•mee•uh) • Sumer (SOO•muhr) • Babylon (BA•buh•luhn)
Mesopotamian Civilization Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People • Sargon (SAHR•GAHN) • Hammurabi (HA•muh•RAH•bee)
Mesopotamian Civilization Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • civilization (SIH•vuh•luh•ZAY•shuhn) • irrigation (IHR•uh•GAY•shuhn) • city-state • artisan (AHR•tuh•zuhn) • cuneiform (kyoo•NEE•uh•FAWRM) • scribe (SKRYB) • empire (EHM•PYR)
Mesopotamian Civilization Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Sequencing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 16 of your textbook, to show how the first empire in Mesopotamia came about.
Mesopotamian Civilization Mesopotamia’s Civilization • Civilizations are complex societies with cities, governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system. • Rivers were important because they made for good farming conditions. • They also made it easy for people to travel and trade. • Governments were formed because someone had to make plans and decisions for the common good. (pages 17–20)
Mesopotamian Civilization Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) • Mesopotamia is a flat plain bounded by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. • Floods in Mesopotamia were frequent and unpredictable. • Farmers learned to control the rivers with dams and channels. • They also used the rivers to irrigate, or water, their crops. (pages 17–20)
Mesopotamian Civilization Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) • Many cities formed in a southern region of Mesopotamia known as Sumer. • Sumerian cities were city-states, with their own governments. • Sumerian cities often fought each other. • To protect themselves, the city-states built walls around themselves. (pages 17–20)
Mesopotamian Civilization Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) • Sumerians believed in many gods. • Each city-state had a ziggurat, or grand temple, to honor the gods. (pages 17–20)
Mesopotamian Civilization Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) • Most Sumerians were farmers, but some were artisans, or skilled workers. • Others were merchants and traders. • Sumerian city-states had three classes. • The upper class consisted of kings, priests, and government officials. • The middle class consisted of artisans, merchants, fishers, and farmers. (pages 17–20)
Mesopotamian Civilization Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) • The lower class consisted of slaves. (pages 17–20)
Mesopotamian Civilization What effect did irrigation have on the people of Mesopotamia? Irrigation allowed farmers to grow plenty of food. More food meant more people could be fed, so the population grew.
Mesopotamian Civilization A Skilled People • Mesopotamia has been called the cradle of civilization because of the influence of Sumerian ideas on other areas. • Writing helps people keep records and pass on ideas. • Sumerians developed a writing system called cuneiform. • Only a few people, called scribes, learned to write. (pages 20–21)
Mesopotamian Civilization A Skilled People (cont.) • The Sumerians also produced the oldest known story, the Epic ofGilgamesh. • The Sumerians also invented new technology such as the wagon wheel, the sailboat, and the plow. • The Sumerians developed many mathematical ideas, including geometry, a number system based on 60, and a 12-month calendar. (pages 20–21)
Mesopotamian Civilization Why did Sumerians study the skies? The locations of the planets and stars guided the Sumerians’ farming and festivals.
Mesopotamian Civilization Sargon and Hammurabi • Sargon, the king of the Akkadians, conquered all of Mesopotamia and set up the world’s first empire. • An empire is a group of many different lands under one ruler. • After Sargon, another group of people became powerful. • They built the city of Babylon on the Euphrates River. (page 23)
Mesopotamian Civilization Sargon and Hammurabi (cont.) • The Babylonian king, Hammurabi, conquered lands north and south of Babylon to create the Babylonian Empire. • The Code of Hammurabi was a collection of laws covering crimes, farming, business activities, and marriage and family. • Many punishments in the code were cruel, but the code was an important step in the development of a justice system. (page 23)
Mesopotamian Civilization What were some of the benefits of living in Hammurabi’s empire? What were some of the drawbacks? Benefits: Living in a large, powerful empire helps keep enemies from taking over the land; Hammurabi’s code helped keep people from committing crimes against one another. Drawbacks: Hammurabi’s code had cruel punishments; people were governed by one person, Hammurabi, instead of living in a representative government.