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Human Rights What are They?. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oh3BbLk5UIQ. Human Rights.
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Human RightsWhat are They? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oh3BbLk5UIQ
Human Rights • They are the Basic rights that we have come to value and cherish as part of our life. These rights are free speech, freedom of religion, trial by jury, freedom of the press, the right to express our opinions, the ability to control our own destiny, the right to own our own property, etc. • "Q" Why have people been denied their Human Rights? • The reasons vary: • 1. Political Oppression (Totalitarian Regimes) • 2. Religious Persecution • 3. Racial Discrimination • 4. Economic Domination (Imperialism / Colonialism)
Colonialism/Imperialism • Q" What is a Colony? • A territory or country conquered by a foreign country. • "Q" What is Colonialism? • It is when one government imposes political, social, and economic control over foreign territories. • The mother country takes advantage of the resources and people in the colony to benefit their own economy. • Markets • Resources • Labor
"Q" How long has Colonialism been practiced? • Colonialism has existed since ancient times. Among the most notable empires of the ancient world were those of the Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, Alexander the Great, Rome, Mongols.
"Q" How is modern Colonialism (Imperialism) different than in Ancient times? • Modern European colonialism dates from the 15th century and can be divided into two overlapping phases: 1500 to about 1800 (The Age of Exploration) • and 1800 to World War II (the Industrial Revolution) • In the first phase, Western Europe, led by Spain and Portugal, expanded in the East Indies and the Americas. • In the second, Great Britain lead European expansion into Asia, Africa, and the Pacific.
European Imperialism in the Americas had several causes: • The quest for precious metals • The need for new land for agriculture • The search for religious freedom • The desire to convert the indigenous peoples (natives) to Christianity.
"Q" What were the effects of Colonialism? • The effects of colonialism are mixed, both for the colonizers and the colonized. • Europeans, emigration opportunities, expanded trade and profits, and important resources. • At the same time, conquest brought with it significant costs.
Colonization certainly had harmful effects on the peoples of the colonized areas. • Life-styles were disrupted, cultures destroyed, and entire peoples subjugated (enslaved) or exterminated.
"Q" What factors led to the end of Colonialism? • Old Imperialism ended due to the Revolutions in the 1700-1800’s • New Imperialism ended because of WW II • The growth of self-determination (Nationalism) in the colonies led to many fights for freedom
In a matter of three decades, the colonial empires built over a number of centuries, were almost totally dismantled.
The African Slave Trade • While the European involvement in the Trans- Atlantic slave trade to the Americas lasted for just over three centuries, the Arab involvement in the slave trade has lasted fourteen centuries, and in some parts of the Muslim world is still continuing to this day. • Between 1450 and the end of the 19th century, slaves were obtained from along the west coast of Africa with the full and active co-operation of African kings and merchants.
In return, the African kings and merchants received various trade goods including beads, cowrie shells (used as money), textiles, brandy, horses, and perhaps most importantly, guns. • Africans were used primarily on the sugar plantations in the Caribbean and Brazil. • the mortality rate for slaves being transported across the Atlantic was as high as 10%, the percentage of slaves dying in transit in the Trans Sahara and East African slave trade was between 80 and 90%!
While two out of every three slaves shipped across the Atlantic were men, the proportions were reversed in the Islamic slave trade.
The slaves shipped across the Atlantic were for agricultural work, the slaves destined for the Muslim Middle East were for sexual exploitation as concubines, in harems, and for military service. • Slaves who went to the Americas could marry and have families, slaves destined for the Middle East were castrated, and most of the children born to the women were killed at birth. • It is estimated that possibly as many as 11 million Africans were transported across the Atlantic, however, at least 28 million Africans were enslaved in the Muslim Middle East.
As at least 80% of those captured by Muslim slave traders were calculated to have died before reaching the slave markets, it is believed that the death toll from the 14 centuries of Muslim slave raids into Africa could have been over 112 million. • While Christian Reformers spearheaded the anti-slavery abolitionist movements in Europe and North America, there was no comparable opposition to slavery within the Muslim world.
Apartheid:separation of the races. • Has its roots from Imperialism. Started when South Africa received independence from the British gov't. and the white minority refused to allow native South Africans the ability to mix with their culture. • What were the effects of Apartheid on South Africa? • a. all South Africans were classified as either white, black, coloured (mixed races) or Asian. Non whites could not vote. They were denied the ability to participate in govt. • b. non whites were restricted as to where they could live and where they could work. • c. all non whites had to carry pass books to control their movement. • d. non whites could not go to "white" schools, restaurants, beaches, or ride on their busses busses.
The Sharpeville (Demonstration) Massacre: in 1960 what started as a peaceful demonstration against the policies of Apartheid, turned violent when police opened fire on the crowd killing more than 60 people. Nelson Mandela, one of the organizers, went into hiding but was captured in 1964 and sentenced to life in prison. • Groups such as the ANC (African National Congress) and the OAU (Organization of African Unity) worked to bring world attention to the issue and gain international support to end Apartheid.
c. The United Nations worked to force an end to the segregated society that existed. • Economic Embargoes were placed upon South Africa businesses until they ended the Apartheid laws. • d. Archbishop Desmond Tutu used his position to rally clerics (Religious Leaders) worldwide to call for an end to Apartheid (won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984)
the Soweto demonstration of 1976 was caused by the law requiring all schools to use the Afrikaans language • * In 1990 Nelson Mandela was released from prison. • * In 1991 F.W. de Klerk repealed the law requiring all South Africans to be classified by race. • * In 1994 Nelson Mandela is elected President of South Africa.
Ethnic Cleansing: Genocide • The systematic execution of a group of people because of their race, religion, or ethnic background. There are many examples of Ethnic Cleansing that have occurred throughout the course of history. • Rwanda: Hutus vs. Tutsis • In 1993 a violent civil war erupted between 2 rival tribes in Rwanda. Over 1 million Tutsis were exterminated by the Hutus. • The Hutus leaders then forced over 2 million members of their own tribe to flee their country. • this Diaspora led to millions more dying. • the conditions got so bad that at its worst the death rate was 1 per minute. were dying of cholera, dysentery, bubonic plague and the measles.
The Former Yugoslavia: • In 1991 this country was ripped apart by civil war. • The territories of Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia were created. Between 1991 and 1995 this civil war was responsible for some horrible atrocities- the systematic execution and rape of many Bosnians. • These war crimes and the concentration camps that were created eventually got the United Nations involved to try and end the hostilities. Unfortunately the hostilities are still going on today.
Serbians / Orthodox Catholic • Croatians / Roman Catholic • Bosnians / Muslim
Khmer Rouge: Cambodia 1970's • Pol Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge renamed Cambodia Kampuchea. • He then set out to destroy all traces of foreign influence. He forced the inhabitants of the cities who had come into contact with the foreigners to move to the country. • There many died of starvation as well as torture if suspected of being disloyal. • More than 1 million (as high as 2 mil) of the 7 million Cambodians were killed in what became known as the Killing Fields. • In 1979 Vietnamese soldiers invaded Cambodia and overthrew Pol Pot • Gulags (concentration camps.)
Pol Pot went after city dwellers (ties to foreigners) • Intellectuals (educated people) they could not be propagandized • Minorities (non Cambodians) • Any who criticized his policies