adaptive hypermedia research at the department of informatics university of piraeus n.
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Adaptive Hypermedia Research at the Department of Informatics, University of Piraeus

Adaptive Hypermedia Research at the Department of Informatics, University of Piraeus

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Adaptive Hypermedia Research at the Department of Informatics, University of Piraeus

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  1. Adaptive Hypermedia Research at the Department of Informatics, University of Piraeus Maria Virvou, Maria Moundridou, Victoria Tsiriga, Katerina Kabassi, George Katsionis, Konstantinos Manos, Kalliopi Tourtoglou, Eythymios Alepis

  2. WEAR • WEAR: a Web-based authoring tool for building Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Algebra-related domains (e.g. physics, economics, etc.) • AETG is WEAR’s component that allows instructors to author adaptive electronic textbooks (in any domain) which are then delivered over the WWW to learners • WEAR’s design was based on the results of an empirical study that we conducted among students and instructors • One important finding of this study was the need of incorporating an instructor modelling component in WEAR’s architecture

  3. Instructor modelling in WEAR • WEAR’s instructor modelling component is used to model the needs, preferences and expertise of instructors and provide them individualised support. In this way, the instructor’s interaction with the tool can be more user-friendly and efficient. • A study was conducted in order to examine the necessity and added value of the existence of this novel component in WEAR’s architecture. • The results of the evaluation study showed that the instructor modelling component is indeed a valuable part of WEAR • Moreover, these positive findings strengthen our belief that most authoring tools for Intelligent and Adaptive Educational Systems could benefit from the incorporation of such a component in their architecture.

  4. References • Moundridou, M. & Virvou, M. (2003), Analysis and design of a Web-based authoring tool generating Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Computers & Education. 40(2), pp. 157-181. • Moundridou, M. & Virvou, M. (2002): Evaluating the instructor support provided by a Web-based authoring tool for building adaptive courses. In: Petrushin, V., Kommers, P., Kinshuk & Galeev, I. (eds.): IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies; Media and the Culture of Learning - ICALT 2002, IEEE Computer Society, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 408-413. • Moundridou, M. & Virvou, M. (2001): Authoring and Delivering Adaptive Web-Based Textbooks using WEAR. In: Okamoto, T., Hartley, R., Kinshuk & Klus, J.P. (eds.): IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies; Issues, Achievements, and Challenges - ICALT 2001, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, California, 185-188. More information about WEAR can be found at:

  5. ISM Framework for Student Modeling • The problem of initializing student models has often been neglected in AEHS. • We have developed a framework for Initializing Student Models (ISM framework) in Web-based educational systems. • ISM uses a combination of stereotypes and the distance weighted k-Nearest Neighbor algorithm. • ISM has been applied in two AEHS for different tutoring domains. • Experiments showed that the initialization of student models was improved using the ISM framework. • The models are used in order to provide adaptive tutoring and support to students.

  6. Open Issues concerning ISM • Automatic generation of the stereotypes used for initializing student models in ISM. • ISM should be expanded so as to propose a method for updating the initial student models. • Evaluation of the initial student models that are produced by ISM in a longer term basis.

  7. References • Tsiriga, V. & Virvou, M. (2004a), Evaluating the Intelligent Features of a Web-based Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System, International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, 13(2). • Tsiriga, V. & Virvou, M. (2004b), A Framework for the Initialization of Student Models in Web-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, User Modelling and User-Adapted Interaction, to appear. • Virvou, M. & Tsiriga, V. (2002): An object-oriented software life cycle of an intelligent tutoring system, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 17(2), 200-205.

  8. User Modelling through Web Services • Student modelling is of vital importance for the adaptivity of the educational systems because it guarantees personalisation of tutoring. • WebSUM: an architecture for student modelling over the web that is based on the very recent technology of Web Services. • Self-contained, modular applications that provide a set of functionalities. • A new model on the Web in which information exchange more conveniently,reliably and easily. • Enables the dynamic integration of applications distributed over the Internet, independently of their underlying platforms. • How this information is used?

  9. Cognitive and MCDM theories • Human Plausible Reasoning (HPR)  descriptive theory on human plausible inference. • representation of plausible inferences patterns • set of certainty parameters • However, the creators of HPR had not specified the exact mathematical formula for the calculation of their value. • Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) complementing HPR • decision making theories provide precise mathematical methods for combining criteria but do not define the criteria. • HPR provides a unifying formal framework of inference patterns and definition of criteria but does not specify precise mathematical formulas for combining these criteria. • SAW, MAUT, DEA

  10. References • Kabassi, K. & Virvou, M. (2003), Using Web Services for Personalised Web-based Learning. Educational Technology & Society, Journal of International Forum of Educational Technology & Society and IEEE Learning Technology Task Force, 6(3), 61-71. • Kabassi, K. & Virvou, M. (2004), Personalised Adult e-Training on Computer Use based on Multiple Attribute Decision Making. Interacting with Computers, 16(1), 115-132. More information can be found at:

  11. Virtual reality educational games • The integration of the technology of VR-Games with educational systems can provide effective educational applications. • VIRGE: a language tutoring system that invites the culture of computer games for educational purposes.The use of virtual reality games mayprovide a cultural internationalisation and wide acceptance of these systems. • However, the marriage of education and game-like entertainment has produced some not-very-educational games and some not very-entertaining learning activities. • Thus, the scope of motivation and attractiveness of the educational game both in classroom and leisure time conditions has been examined.

  12. Affective user modelling • People’s feelings can play an important role on their cognitive processes. • VIRGE models aspects of student behaviour, by combining detectable performance characteristics of students’ actions while using the keyboard and the mouse, with evidence from students’ errors. • Makes inferences for the student’s possible emotional state while interacting with the educational application, and provides appropriate feedback. • It is very important for intelligent tutoring systems to be flexible, depending not only on the learning model of a student but also on the affective model.

  13. References • Virvou, M., & Katsionis, G. (2003), Relating Error Diagnosis and Performance Characteristics forAffect Perception and Empathy in an Educational Software Application, Proceedings of the10th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction HCII’2003. • Virvou, M., Katsionis, G. & Manos, K. (2004), On the motivation and attractiveness scope of thevirtual reality user interface of an educational game, Proceedings of the InternationalConference on Computational Science, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ICCS 2004. More information can be found at:

  14. Cognitive model of students’ memory in ITS • The model measures-simulates the way students learn and possibly forget by using principles of cognitive psychology concerning human memory • The model is based on a Cognitive Model by Ebbinghaus which tries to simulate the retention capabilities of human brain (Ebbinghaus, 1998) • The generality of our approach and its effectiveness within was tested by incorporating the model in a knowledge based authoring tool,theEd-Game Author (Virvou et al. 2002)

  15. Memory Features in Simulated Students • With the use of agents equipped with a cognitive model simulating human’s brain retention capabilities, we try to measure the effectiveness of an educational software • The agents, using different student models, “play” the educational software while keeping track on the information actually retained • At the end of the process we can point out where our educational software is weak on “teaching” the specified subject

  16. References • Manos, K. & Virvou, M. (2004): Memory Features in Simulated Students to Improve the Software Engineering Process and the Performance of Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Technology Instruction Cognition & Learning, 1(4), OCP Science, Vol 1, pp. 303-322 • Virvou, M., Katsionis, G. & Manos, K. (2004), On the motivation and attractiveness scope of thevirtual reality user interface of an educational game, Proceedings of the InternationalConference on Computational Science, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ICCS 2004. • Virvou, M., Manos, K., Katsionis, G. & Tourtoglou, K (2002): Incorporating the Culture of Virtual Reality Games into Educational Software via an Authoring Tool, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems Man and Cybernetics 2002 (SMC 02), 2, 326-331. • Virvou, M. & Manos, K. (2003), Individualising a cognitive model of students’ memory in Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 2773, 893-897. More information can be found at:

  17. Mobile Author • Mobile Author allows human instructors to create their own ITS in the domain they are interested in, simply by using their mobile phone. • A mobile ITS authoring tool designed to provide the relatively new mobile facilities to both instructors and students while retaining high quality of the educational application with respect to interactivity, adaptivity and personalisation. • Human instructors have to insert domain data through a user-friendly interface from any computer or mobile device they wish to use. Then Mobile Author provides the reasoning mechanisms needed for the creation of a complete ITS.

  18. Mobile Tutoring and Course Management • All domain data that is inserted by instructors is kept into the Tutoring Domain Data-Bases, which communicate with the Educational Application Reasoner and thus can form the ITS to be delivered to the students • When an ITS has been created by an author (instructor), it may be used by students as an educational tool while instructors can be assisted in the management of the course and the assessment of their students • Both kinds of user (students and instructors) can use the application to cooperate in the educational process. The instructor and the students are not only able to have easy access to the data-bases of the application but they can also “communicate” with each other

  19. References • Virvou M. (2002) “A Cognitive Theory in an Authoring Tool for Intelligent Tutoring Systems”, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems Man and Cybernetics 2002 (SMC’02), Vol 2, pp. 410-415. • Virvou M. & Alepis E. (2003). Human-like characteristics by speaking animated agents in a web-based tutoring system. In C. Stephanidis (ed.) Adjunct Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction (HCII’2003), pp. 109-110. • Virvou M. & Alepis E. (2003). Creating tutoring characters through a Web-based authoring tool for educational software. In Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics.