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  2. The WORLD WIDE WEB, abbreviated as WWW and commonly known as the Web, is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them by via hyperlinks. Using concepts from earlier hypertext systems, English engineer and computer scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee, now the Director of the World Wide Web Consortium, wrote a proposal in March 1989 for what would eventually become the World Wide Web.

  3. Your own WWW is just a small part of internet and it does not comprise of the internet completely. In the pre WWW period, Internet was mainly used for obtaining information in the form of text and required that users know basic UNIX commands. But after WWW came into being, the internet grew tremendously because of the graphics and the high tech capability of WWW. Hence the credit for the growth of internet mainly goes to WWW (World Wide Web). Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWWaround a particular website


  5. USER-FRIENDLY WWW resource easily works with most of the known internet browsers, which are very user-friendly. MULTIMEDIA DOCUMENTS Information on the Web, which may be Graphics, audio, video, animations and text is viewed in pages. A web page is a document on the Internet that can contain text plus any of these multimedia elements. WWW allows the users to link and display these multimedia web pages. HYPERTEXT & HYPERLINKS A hypertext file is a document that can incorporate text, graphic images, audio and video tracks, and most importantly, dynamic links to related files or documents, even on net. These dynamic links are called hyper links.

  6. TELNET Telnet is an internet utility that lets you log onto remote computer systems. Telnet is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communications facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol. Telnet was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15, extended in RFC 854, and standardized as Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet Standard STD 8, one of the first Internet standards.

  7. Here's a quick fix for using the included Telnet application for OS: Click <Start>  <Run> Type: telnet “someplace.com 1234” (NOTE: Here “someplace.com” is the Host Name of the Remote System.1234 is the port number and is often optional or not necessary) When you telnet from a telnet session that first telnet inspects all your keystrokes before passing them on to the remote connection which is itself running telnet.


  9. Connecting serial RS232 devices via Telnet

  10. The documents residing on web sites are called web-pages. The web pages use HTTP. (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol). A web page or webpage is a document or information resource that is suitable for the World Wide Web and can be accessed a web browser and displayed on a monitor or mobile device. WEB PAGE This information is usually in HTML or XHTML format, and may provide navigation to other webpages via hypertextlinks.

  11. Web Portal Web portal is a web site, which hosts other websites. By clicking upon the links, the corresponding web sites can be opened. www.yahoo.com is an example of web portal.

  12. Web hosting is a means of hosting web server application on a computer system through which electronic content on the internet is readily available to any web browser client. The computer server providing the web hosting is known as web-host or web-server. Web hosting

  13. One can choose from various types of web hosting services. Broadly web hosting can be categorised into following 4 categories: 1. Free hosting. 2. Virtual or shared hosting. 3. Dedicated hosting. 4. Colocation hosting. types of WEB hosting services

  14. This type of hosting is available with many prominent sites that offer to host some web pages for no cost. Example:- geocities ,tripod. A free web hosting service is a web hosting service that is free, usually advertisement-supported. Free web hosts will usually provide a subdomain or a directory .In contrast, paid web hosts will usually provide a second-level domain along with the hosting (www.yourname.com). Many free hosts do allow use of separately-purchased domains. Free hosting

  15. This type of hosting is provided under one’s zone domain name, www.yourname.com. Virtual hosting is a method for hosting multiple domain names on a computer using a single IP address. This allows one machine to share its resources, such as memory and processor cycles, to use its resources more efficiently. One widely used application is shared web hosting,where many customers can be hosted on a single server. Virtual or shared hosting

  16. In this type of hosting, the company wishing rents an entire web server from a hosting company. This is suitable for companies hosting larger web sites , managing others sites or managing a big online mall etc. Dedicated hosting

  17. In this type of hosting the company actually owns the server on which the site is hosted. The company now is responsible for server administration. The colocation hosting generally requires a high speed internet connection, a regulated power supply and limited amount of hands on technical support such as data back up and hardware. Colocation hosting

  18. Virtual or shared hosting

  19. Hypertext Markup Language The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a networking protocol for distributed collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. HTTP functions as a request response protocol in the client-server computing model. The client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which stores content, or provides resources, such as HTML files and images, or generates such content as required, or performs other functions on behalf of the client, returns a response message to the client.

  20. HTML is not a word processing tool. It is just a page layout and hyperlink specification language. HTML provides many layout commands called tags. The general form of an HTML element is :- <tag attribute1="value1" attribute2="value2">content to be rendered</tag>/

  21. The World Wide Web (WWW) is based upon clients and servers. It was invented by CERN physicist Sir Tim Berners-Lee in 1990. A WWW client that navigates through the World Wide Web is called Web Browser. A WWW server that responds to the requests made by web browsers is called Web Server. Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator are two most popular web browsers. WEB BROWSER and WEB SERVER

  22. A website is a collection of related web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that are addressed relative to a common Uniform Resource Locator (URL). • All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web. • Some websites require a subscription to access some or all of their content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, parts of news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, message boards, web-based e-mail, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, and websites providing various other services. WEBSITES

  23. Websites are of four types based on their functioning: 1. Personal websites 2. Commercial websites 3. Government websites 4. Non-profit organization websites • Websites are of two types based on their code: 1. Static websites 2. Dynamic websites Types of websites

  24. STATIC WEBSITE • A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format that is sent to a client web browser. It is primarily coded in Hypertext Mark up Language (HTML). • This type of website usually displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will generally provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. • Visitors are not able to control what information they receive via a static website.

  25. DYNAMIC WEBSITE • A dynamic website is one that changes or customizes itself frequently and automatically, based on certain criteria. • It has two type of dynamic activity: 1. Dynamic code 2. Dynamic content

  26. A web page is a document, typically written in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Mark up Language (HTML, XHTML). A web page may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable mark up anchors. Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user of the web page content. WEB PAGES

  27. 1. HOME PAGES: It is the top-less web page of the website. When the site is opened, its home page is displayed. 2. WEB PORTAL: It is a web site, which hosts other websites. It has the hyperlinks to many other websites. By clicking upon these links, the corresponding websites can be opened. Eg: www.yahoo.com. A web portal also offers a broad array of resources and services such as e-mail, forum, online shopping, etc.

  28. In computing, a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that specifies where an identified resource is available and the mechanism for retrieving it. The Uniform Resource Locator was created in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee and the URI working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force. The format is based on Unix file path syntax. A URL is a URI that, "in addition to identifying a resource, provides a means of locating the resource by describing its primary access mechanism (e.g., its network location)". UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR (URL)

  29. SYNTAX Every URL consists the following: The scheme name (commonly called protocol), followed by a colon, then, depending on scheme, a domain name (alternatively, IP address), a port number, the path of the resource to be fetched or the program to be run, then, for programs such as Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts, a query string, and an optional fragment identifier.

  30. The “http” identifies both the protocol and server. A colon(:) & two forward slashes(//) follow. The next component is the address is the name of the server. Commonly it begins with “www” for World Wide Web. Then the address comes. The suffix of the URL indicates the type of website is.

  31. Before you get to know what XML is all about and it’s details…. Difference between HTML and XML… 1.HTML is presentation language where as XML is not either a programming  language or a presentation language.It is used to transfer data between applications and databases. 2.HTML is not case-sensitive where as XML is case-sensitive. 3.In XML we can define our own tags as it is not possible in HTML. 4.In XML it is mandatory to close each and every tag where as in HTML it is not required. 5.XML describes the data where as HTML only defines the data Differing meaning based on differing use of uppercase and lowercase letters.

  32. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) • Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a set of rules for encoding documents in machine-readable form. XML's design goals emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability over the Internet. It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for the languages of the world. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, it is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures, for example in web services. • Many application programming interfaces (APIs) have been developed that software developers use to process XML data, and several schema systems exist to aid in the definition of XML-based languages. • As of 2009[update], hundreds of XML-based languages have been developed, including RSS, Atom, SOAP, and XHTML. XML-based formats have become the default for most office-productivity tools, including Microsoft Office (Office Open XML), OpenOffice.org (Open Document), and Apple's iWork.

  33. Example <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <painting> <img src="madonna.jpg" alt='Foligno Madonna, by Raphael'/> <caption>This is Raphael's "Foligno" Madonna, painted in <date>1511</date>–<date>1512</date>. </caption> </painting>

  34. DHTML (Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language) • Dynamic HTML, or DHTML, is an umbrella term for a collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated web sites by using a combination of a static markup language (such as HTML), a client-side scripting language (such as JavaScript), a presentation definition language (such as CSS), and the Document Object Model. • DHTML allows scripting languages to change variables in a web page's definition language, which in turn affects the look and function of otherwise "static" HTML page content, after the page has been fully loaded and during the viewing process. Thus the dynamic characteristic of DHTML is the way it functions while a page is viewed, not in its ability to generate a unique page with each page load. • By contrast, a dynamic web page is a broader concept — any web page generated differently for each user, load occurrence, or specific variable values. This includes pages created by client-side scripting, and ones created by server-side scripting (such as PHP, Perl, JSP or ASP.NET) where the web server generates content before sending it to the client.

  35. Example: Displaying an additional block of text The following code illustrates an often-used function. An additional part of a web page will only be displayed if the user requests it. <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"> <head> <title>Test</title> <style type="text/css"> h2 {background-color: lightblue; width: 100%} a {font-size: larger; background-color: goldenrod} a:hover {background-color: gold} #example1 {display: none; margin: 3%; padding: 4%; background-color: limegreen} </style> <script type="text/javascript"> function changeDisplayState (id) { d=document.getElementById("showhide"); e=document.getElementById(id); if (e.style.display == 'none' || e.style.display == "") { e.style.display= 'block'; d.innerHTML= 'Hide example..............'; } else { e.style.display= 'none'; d.innerHTML= 'Show example'; } } </script> </head> <body> <h2>How to use a DOM function</h2> <div><a id="showhide" href="javascript:changeDisplayState('example1')">Show example</a></div> <div id="example1"> This is the example. (Additional information, which is only displayed on request)... </div> <div>The general text continues...</div> </body> </html>


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