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  1. Assignments • Read Pages 138-168 • Be familiar with “Thinking Like a Criminologist p 167

  2. Where did Phrenology go? Franz Gall

  3. Phrenology What were phrenology's limitations?

  4. Phrenology Was Popular • American Phrenological Journal and Life Illustrated • Phrenological journal • The Constitution of Man

  5. Phineas Gage • Empirical Evidence for Phrenology was non existent • 1848 Accident

  6. Enrico Ferri (1856-1929) Student of Lombroso’s

  7. Inheritance School • Ferri concluded that Crime Behavior is Inherited • Habitual Criminals are mostly affected by environment.

  8. Inheritance School All crime is Involuntary Behavior

  9. Inheritance School Habitual Criminals are Mostly Affected by Environment

  10. Ferri’s Four criminal Types • Insane • Born • Occasional • Criminal by passion

  11. Inheritance school • Three Factors that should be Considered for Criminality • Social • Economic • Political

  12. What Ferri Added to Criminology • Crime Prevention

  13. Raffaele Garafolo(1852-1934) • Certain Physical characteristics indicate a criminal nature • Lowered Sensitivity to pain indicated by tattooing

  14. Garafolo • Probity • Morality, values • Pity • Feeling for others, remorse

  15. What Garofolo Gave Criminology • “Society is an organic body and crime is the disease” • American Eugenics Movement ( The Social Defense Approach to Criminological Positivism

  16. American Eugenics DO YOU AGREE THAT CRIMINAL CONDUCT IS A PRODUCT OF A COMBINATION OF INHERITED PHYSICAL TRAITS, SOCIAL FACTORS AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT?

  17. American Eugenics WOULD IT BE A GOOD PREVENTATIVE MEASURE TO STERILIZE PEOPLE WHO PASS ON CRIMINAL TENDENCIES?

  18. Next Lecture Buck v. Bell 274 US 200(1927) Mandatory Sterilization to rid America of the “Dregs of Society” Body Types and Criminality