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Historical and geopolitical development of Slovakia

Historical and geopolitical development of Slovakia. Human Geography of the Slovak Republic for foreign students. Pre- Slavic period. settlements from the Stone Age Neanderthal – the oldest – over 100 000 y. – limestone cast of skull in Gánovc e. Source. Source. Pre- Slavic period.

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Historical and geopolitical development of Slovakia

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  1. Historical and geopolitical development of Slovakia HumanGeography of the Slovak Republicforforeignstudents

  2. Pre-Slavicperiod • settlements from the Stone Age • Neanderthal – the oldest – over 100 000 y. – limestone cast of skull in Gánovce Source

  3. Source Pre-Slavicperiod • bordering the Roman Empire • the Province of Pannonia • presence of Romans evidenced in the territory of Slovakia • inscription dedicated to the goddess of victory on a rock reef in Trenčín (Laugaricio) by commander of the Roman legions MaximilianusValerius in 179 AD Source Source Source

  4. 6th century AD: Slavsarrival • Slavs settled the territory ofSlovakia in the 6th century AD • end of the 8th century – domination over the area • 8th century – Principality (Duchy) of Nitra – Prince Pribina • the 1st „independent Slavic state“ in the territory of Slovakia • this is very disputable but many historians derive origin of Slovaks from this entity • 9th century – Principality of Morava establishment – annexation of Nitra (ca. 833) => • 833 – Great Moravia Empire source

  5. Great Moravian Empire • the first major West Slavicstate in Central Europe • emperors converted to Christianity – population pagan • covering whole territory of Slovakia and Czechia • argument for establishment of later Czechoslovakia • reached thelargest spatialextent underkingSvätoplukI (870-894) • spread of Christianity • prince Rastislav (846-870) requested Rome for missionaries – refused • request to Constantinople (Istanbul) • Byzantine emperor sent Saints Cyril and Methodius from Thessaloniki • beside Christianity, literacy and a legal systemwereintroduced • Slavonic liturgy – Old Church Slavonic language – Glagolitic alphabet • Cyril and Methodius expelled under Svätopluk – reorientation to Rome • Pope Adrian II approved the liturgy – acceptation of Old Slavonic among the first formally approved liturgical languages

  6. Great Moravian Empire • disciples of Cyril & Methodius (concentrated around Lake Ohrid) improved Glagolitic script and named in honour of C&M Cyrilic script • the base of script used across Eurasia (azbuka) • C&Mwere declared co-patrons of Europe by Pope John Paul II in 1980 Old ChurchSlavic „OurFather“ prayer – source & listen the oldest preserved church in Slovakia (Kopčany) dates back to era of Great Moravia (9th century)

  7. 9th/10th century:Arrival of Magyars • ancestors of Hungarians arrived into thePannonian basin • relatively small but militarily skilled group has conquered the territory • in fact the territory of Slovakia became part of Hungary for following 1000 years • Principality of Nitra renewed as a province of Hungary (10th – 12th century) • Magyars converted to Christianity • on Christmas in 1000, Stephen ascended to the throne with the crown sent by Pope Silvester II – Stephen I of Hungary • establishment of Hungarian kingdom • multi-ethnic state • spatial, economic, cultural ... expansion source source

  8. 1241-1242: Mongols‘ invasion • short but devastating, during the rule of Belo IV • burned out andspilled areas, famine, loss of population, economic decline • building castles in border areas, privileges to German colonists (Saxons, Schwabs) • establishment of many towns – basis of current urban network • rapid economic growth in German areas (mining, trade, crafts)

  9. Hungary in 11th and 13th century source

  10. 1526: Battle of Moháč (Mohács) • Ottoman empire defeated Hungary • Hungary divided into three parts • area of Slovakia became part of Habsburg Monarchy • stimulus for some Slovak towns • Bratislava – coronation town (incl. Maria Theresa) • in 1536 declaredthecapital of Hungary • Trnava – seat of archbishop • by 1699 • Ottoman army suppressed beyond Hungary • Habsburg rule over Hungary • internal migration to re-settle destroyed areas • spread of reformation followed by counter-reformation source

  11. source

  12. In 1412king Sigismund ofLuxemburg gave 16 Spiš Germantowns to thePolishdeposit. The deposit finished after 360 yearsin 1772 when the Maria Theresia bought these towns back. source

  13. 18th & 19th century: Slovak nationalism • end of 18th century – attempts to codify common Slovak language • successful as late as mid-19th century • in the 19th century a Slovak National Revival began • led by LudovitStur (1815-1856) • codifiedlanguage, first periodicals... • Austro-Hungaria became dual monarchy (1867) • attempts for Hungarisation of Slovaks • education not possible in Slovak • increase in emigration – Slovak diaspora in Americas, Western Europe • emergence of diplomacy in exile

  14. Ethnographic map of Hungary 1880

  15. source

  16. 1918: Czechoslovakia • Slovak national revival resulted in the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic, the common state of Czechs and Slovaks • difficult delimitation of border • significant support of diplomacy in exile (Milan RastislavŠtefánik) • welcomed by Slovaks, Ruthenians but with concern/resistance by Germans and Hungarians source

  17. Ethnic (linguistic) composition

  18. 1st Czechoslovakia 1918-1938 • Slovaks – political nation • promotion of Czechoslovak ethnic identity to obtain majority in new country • 15 mil. inhabitants – 9 mil. Czechoslovaks, 3,2 mil. Germans, 0,8 mil. Hungarians, 0,5 mil. Ruthenians, 0,2 mil. Jews • republic • among the most modern democracies • liberal policies to minorities, unlimitedwomen‘s right to vote... source

  19. 1st Czechoslovakia 1918-1938 • among the 10 most wealthiest and industrially developed countries in the world • est. 70 – 80% of the industry from Austro-Hungarian monarchy located in Czechoslovakia • challenges: • substantial regional disparities – further industrialisation of Slovakia • loss of markets • traffic infrastructure not corresponding with the shape of new country source

  20. 1st Czechoslovakia 1918-1938 • political orientation: • western democracies: United Kingdom and France • France – the most significantly (1924: Allied treaty) • Yugoslavia and Romania • Little Entente – to prevent Hungarian attempts for re-unification source

  21. 1938-1945: WWII • Hitler‘sGermanyannexedCzechlands (Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia) • Slovakia becameformallyindependent, in factitwaspuppet state • southernregions and Subcarpathiaannexed by Hungary, smallextension to thenorth • new Slovak government led by JozefTiso, who introduced a repressive regime • about 73,000 Slovak Jews and thousands of Roma deported toworkcamps • 1944 a nationalliberationfightcalled the Slovak National Uprising took place • German troops suppressedit (somevillagesburned) • by the end of 1944 Czech and Russian troops entered Slovakia and freeditfromNazistroops source

  22. 1945-1948: end of democracy • in April 1945 new government executed in Košice, later moved to Prague • the restored republic became part of the Soviet sphere of power • forced rejection of Marshall plan • Soviet Union prevented restoration of power in Subcarpathia • this, including the easternmost area of Slovakia (including railway hub in Chop) became part of Soviet Union • northernmost areas of Spiš and Orava regions became part of Poland • small territory gained south of Bratislava • hopes in a democratic state were ended by a communist takeover called “Victorious February“in 1948 source

  23. 1948-1989: CzechoslovakSocialistRepublic • centrally planned economy • Comecon (Council of Mutual Economic Assistance) • forced nationalization of properties • collectivisation of agriculture • violation of human rights • particularly regarding the religion, Greek-catholic church abolished • atheism as socialist policy – many priests imprisoned, forced labours (uranium mines...) • monetary reform (1953) • devalued the currency (Koruna – crown) 50:1 • kept in secret, people lost majority of savings • industrialisation and urbanisation • loss of competitiveness • rising economic lag compared to Western countries • total political subordination to Moscow • censorship in media, arts... • Iron curtain – people killed when trying to escape source

  24. 1948-1989: CzechoslovakSocialistRepublic • 1968 – Czechoslovakcommunists tried to humanizetotalitarianregime and revive society (humanrights, censorship, ...) • „Socialismwith a humanface“ • represented by Alexander Dubček – head of communist party • in August armies of 5 EasternBloccountriesinvadedCzechoslovakia • USSR, Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria • Soviet troopsoccupied country over 20 years • period of Normalisation

  25. 1989: Fall of totalitarianCommunistregime • preceeded by Candledemonstraton in Bratislava in March 1988 • firstmass demonstration since 1969 against the communist regime in Czechoslovakia • organized by Roman Catholic dissent groups requestingreligious freedom • violently suppressed by the police • Velvetrevolution • gradual decay of the Communist regime and the Soviet empire, and the mass protests and demonstrations of the Czechoslovak people culminated in the overthrow of the Communist regime in November 1989 • election of Vaclav Havel as president of the republic • 1990 multi-party elections held • victory of democraticparties • the process of turning Czechoslovakia into a market economy

  26. 1993: Independent Slovakia • in 1992 peacefuldivison of Czechoslovakiawasagreed • January 1st, 1993 – Slovakia gainedindependence, Bratislavabecamecapital • wildprivatization and authoritarianregime of Prime minister Vladimír Mečiar • e.g., 1997 U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright described Slovakia as the “black hole of Europe.” It waswhentheson of then president Michal Kováč had been kidnappedand a key witness in the casewasmurdered. Allprobablyorganized by Slovak secretservice • lagging behind the surrounding countries in the integration process toWestern structures • after 1998 and particularly 2002 – substantialreformsmade by right-winggovernment of Mikuláš Dzurinda • from Black hole to Tatra tiger • since 2006 (exceptfor 2010-2012) Slovakia has beenruled by socialist party Smer of Robert Fico • criticisedfordeterioration of the business environment, law enforcement ... • February 2018: themurder of young Slovak investigativejournalistreportingcases of thegovernment Ján Kuciak and hisfiancée Martina Kušnírová • massiveproteststhroughoutwhole country – resignation of Fico and Minister of Interior, butthegovernmentled by Smer persists

  27. Politicalsystem • unitary state • self-governingregions and municipalities at lower level • parliamentarydemocraticrepublic • multi-party system • parliament: National Council of the Slovak Republic • 150 MPs • Prime minister: Peter Pellegrini (Smer) • president • head of state, limitedpower • since 1999 elected by direct, popular vote • Andrej Kiska (entrepreneur and philantropist) • highest judicial body is the Constitutional Court • located in Košice source source source source

  28. Integrationinto Western structures • 1991 (1993) – Visegrad group (V4) • a cultural and political alliancefor the purposes of advancing military, cultural, economic and energy cooperation • 2004 – accession to NATO • 2004 – accession to EU • 2007 – joinedtheSchengenarea • 2009 – member of Eurozone source zdroj

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