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Structure and Molecular Properties

Structure and Molecular Properties

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Structure and Molecular Properties

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  1. Structureand Molecular Properties Summer 2012

  2. Overview • Syllabus • ChemDraw • Structures and intermolecular forces

  3. Intermolecular Forces and Physical Properties • Virtual ChemBook, Elmhurst College

  4. Solvents and Boiling Points

  5. Boiling Point Trend: Mass

  6. Intermolecular Forces • Hydrogen bonding • Acceptor/donor • Dipole/dipole • Dipole/induced dipole • Induced dipole/induced dipole • Also called London dispersion forces VDWs Forces

  7. H-Bond Donor, Acceptor, Neither, or Both

  8. Polar Protic, Polar Aprotic, Nonpolar

  9. London Forces in Nonpolar Solvents

  10. General Principles • If molecules are about the same mass • H-bonding > Dipole-dipole > Induced dipole • Induced dipole is weakest interaction, but as surface area increases, cumulative effect can overcome stronger IMF • Strategy for predicting relative boiling points

  11. Solubility • “Like dissolves like” • Based on IMF

  12. Miscibility and Density • Miscibility spectrum • Density • Organics (0.7 g/mL) • Aqueous (1.0 g/mL) • Halogenated (1.3 g.mL)

  13. Miscibility with Water