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Global History and Geography Regents 2005

Global History and Geography Regents 2005

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Global History and Geography Regents 2005

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  1. Global History and Geography Regents 2005 Susan E. Hamilton

  2. Global History & Geography • Introduction & Overview of Program • Test Structure • Study & Test-taking Strategies • Thematic Essay Review • Final Tips

  3. Test Structure • 50 multiple choice questions on ninth and tenth grade material • One thematic essay on broad topic • Several short answer document-based questions • One essay based on the documents

  4. How to Study for the Regents • Identify your strengths and weaknesses and focus on your weaknesses • Know how you learn • Break up study sessions in small chunks of time • make yourself accountable - have someone quiz you

  5. Multiple choice Questions • General social studies/vocabulary • speaker/quotation • maps/political cartoon/graphs/charts • fact/opinion • cause/effect • trend/global issues • outline/main ideas • chronological order

  6. Multiple choice strategies • Read the question carefully. If it is unclear “translate” it (change vocabulary) • Use word association to make connections between key words and what you know • If possible, determine whether the question is asking for a positive or negative answer • Go with what you know • Use process of elimination • Check your answers

  7. Positive Global Events/Ideas • Pax Romana • Magna Carta • Enlightenment • Renaissance • Scientific Revolution • Universal Declaration of Human Rights • detente • Glasnost

  8. Negative Global Events/Ideas • Absolutism/ totalitarianism/ fascism • Armenian Massacre/Holocaust/Cambodian genocide/ ethnic cleansing in Bosnia/ Rwandan genocide • Mao’s Great Leap Forward & Cultural Revolution • collectivization • apartheid

  9. Vocabulary translations • Westernize=modernize=industrialize • independence=self-determination = nationalism =autonomy= sovereignty • traditional = before industrialization • mercantilism=favorable balance of trade • imperialism = colonialism • imperial power = mother country, colonial power • Marxist socialism = communism/Marxism • bourgeoisie = middle class • capitalism= free market, supply and demand

  10. Thematic Essay Strategies • Study key global and geography themes • Read the task and be sure you understand what is being asked. • Brainstorm ideas using word association. Think: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? • Make a chart or graphic organizer using the information provided • Write your essay based on your chart • Reread your essay and add any additional relevant information

  11. Document-based Questions • Always read the question before you read the document. • As you read the document, underline the answer • Answer ALL the document questions using information from the document

  12. Document-based Essay Tips • Brainstorm using word association. It is VERY IMPORTANT to include information relating to the topic beyond the information found in the documents. Think: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? • Make a chart or graphic organizer using the information provided • Make sure that you use and cite the required number of documents. Keep in mind documents are meant to support your position. • Be sure you have included outside information(you may wish to underline this)

  13. Geography & Its Effects • Natural resources: iron ore & coal in Britain > Industrial Revolution, diamonds in S.Africa, gold in Latin America • Rivers: early civilizations emerge; Nile River in Egypt, Fertile Crescent • Water sources: Middle East and Russia • Island status: • Japan’s isolation & limited natural resources - imperialism & industrialization, • Great Britain- strength of navy, ports, WWII

  14. Geography & Its Effects • Monsoons: “feast or famine” of South Asia, Green Revolution • Irregular coastline: Italy has many natural ports, inviting trade & Renaissance, England • Land Bridge: Korea serves as a cultural bridge between Japan and China • Great Eurasian Plain: allowed easy invasions of Poland and USSR (WWII)

  15. Geography & Its Effects • Enormous size of Russia: frequent invasion, difficult to conquer, quest for warm-water ports • Harsh winter: Russia’s “General Winter” helped defeat Napoleon and Hitler • Smooth(regular) coastlines & unnavigable rivers in Africa: delay European imperialism • Location of Middle East: cultural diffusion and conflict over Holy Land • Oil resources: Iraq takeover of Kuwait, OPEC

  16. Global Problems • Know location, causes, effects and possible solutions • overpopulation • deforestation • desertification • status of women • nuclear proliferation • pollution/global warming/depletion of resources • urbanization • famine • terrorism

  17. Turning Points • Just about any revolution can be a turning point in a nation’s history • Others include: • Signing of Magna Carta (1215) • Fall of Constantinople (1453) • Voyages of Columbus (1492) • Collapse of Soviet Union (1990) • End of apartheid in South Africa (1990)

  18. Political Systems • Democracy: gov’t by the consent of the people, protection of individual rights • Direct: Athens • Indirect: Rome • Parliamentary: Britain & India • Word association: Pericles, John Locke, Enlightenment

  19. Political Systems • Communism: government control of economy(command), “classless” society • Russia/Soviet Union, V.I. Lenin, Stalin: 1917-1990 • China, Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping: 1949 • Cuba, Fidel Castro:1959 • Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh: 1975 • Cambodia: Pol Pot • North Korea: Kim Jong Il

  20. Political Systems • Totalitarianism/Authoritarian (Stalin) • Fascist (Hitler, Mussolini) • Theocracy/Religious rule (Ayatollah Khomeini:Iran, Taliban/Afghanistan) • Oppressive dictator (Saddam Hussein) • Autocratic (Czars of Russia) • Absolute rule/divine right (King Louis XIV and Louis XVI) • Feudalism: local control/strict social system/lord

  21. Religion & Philosophies • Hinduism • India • Sacred text: Vedas &Upanishads • Basic beliefs: several gods, caste system, reincarnation, karma, dharma, sacred cow • Impact: caste system remains strong in rural areas but is weakening in cities, many Hindus are vegetarians (Sepoy Mutiny)

  22. Religion & Philosophies • Buddhism • Southeast Asia • Basic beliefs: reincarnation, nirvana, Four Nobel Truths • life is full of suffering • suffering is caused by a desire for things • suffering can be eliminated by eliminating desire • following the Eightfold Path will help overcome desire (right thinking and action)

  23. Religion & Philosophies • Judaism • Israel, created in 1948 • Holy Book: Torah • Three beliefs: monotheistic, God gave Hebrews the land of Canaan (Israel), 10 Commandments • Spread throughout world as a result of Diaspora • Impact:Zionism (Jewish nationalism), conflict in the Middle East

  24. Religion & Philosophies • Christianity • Western Europe, Latin America (Catholic) • Holy Book: Bible • Three beliefs: monotheistic, Jesus Christ as savior, 10 Commandments • Spread through Age of Imperialism (White Man’s Burden) • Impact: Crusades, dominant institution during the Middle Ages, Protestant Reformation (Martin Luther)

  25. Religion & Philosophies • Islam • Middle East (except Israel), Indonesia • Holy Book: Quran (Koran) • Three beliefs: monotheistic, Five Pillars (faith, prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage to Mecca), Sharia (Islamic laws) • Spread through trade and conquest • Impact: Islamic fundementalism in Iran (1979)

  26. Religion & Philosophies • Confucianism • China • Basic beliefs:Five Basic Human Relationships, education should be the road to advancement, filial piety (respect for family) • Impact: provides social order and encourages education

  27. Revolutions • Neolithic Revolution:FROM nomadic tribes TO domestication of animals and farming giving rise to early civilizations • Commercial Revolution:FROM limited trade based on barter TO urban centers and new middle class leading to changes in business practices(mercantilism & capitalism) • Scientific Revolution: FROM medieval thinking TO use of observation and reason

  28. Revolutions • Glorious Revolution:FROM absolutist policies of James II TO William and Mary signing of Bill of Rights limiting power of the monarchy in Great Britain • French Revolution: FROM absolute monarchy of Louis XVI TO democratic ideals of Enlightenment • Industrial Revolution: FROM cottage industry (goods made at home by hand) TO factory system, women working, higher standard of living, reform movement

  29. Revolutions • Russian Revolution:FROM Czarist autocratic rule of Nicholas II TO communist rule under Lenin • Chinese Revolution:FROM warlord control and civil war with Nationalists TO communist rule under Mao Zedong (supported by peasants) • Iranian Revolution:FROM western rule of Shah Reza Pahlevi TO Islamic Fundementalist rule of Ayatollah Khomeini • Green Revolution: FROM limited crop yield TO double crop yield in South/Southeast Asia

  30. Chronological Events • EUROPE: Ancient Greece & Roman Empire > Roman Empire fall> splits > east = Byzantine Empire (thrives from trade) and west = Dark Ages/feudalism> Crusades > rise of trade > Renaissance/Reformation >Age of Exploration > Commercial Revolution > Absolute kings > Enlightenment > French Revolution > Industrial Revolution > Age of Imperialism > WWI & WWII > independence movements in colonies > Cold War > fall of USSR> EU

  31. More chronological events • Africa:Early kingdoms (Ghana, Mali Songhai) > Transatlantic Slave Trade > scramble for Africa by European nations > demands for independence after WWII (Nkrumah & Kenyatta) > tribalism lingers > trend toward democratic nations • India: Mughal Empire (Akbar) > British rule > Gandhi’s independence movement > partitioning (India & Pakistan) > lingering tensions

  32. More chronological events • Japan: Chinese influence > feudal period (Tokugawa Shogunate) > Mathew Perry visits > Meiji Restoration(westernization) > imperialism (raw materials) > WWII > democratic economic superpower • China: Early dynasties > Opium War > Spheres of Influence > Boxer Rebellion > Civil War> Communist Revolution (1949 - Mao) >Great Leap Forward/ Cultural Revolution > Deng’s economic reforms (1980s) > calls for democratic reforms > Tiananmen Square massacre

  33. More chronological events • Russia: harsh autocratic rule under czars > 1917 Bolshevik Revolution (Lenin) > Stalin’s totalitarian rule> WWII > Cold War > Gorbachev’s Glasnost & Perestroika > Collapse of Soviet Union> democracy & free market • Latin America: Spanish conquest >harsh rule (encomienda system)> Slave trade > nationalist movements> military dictatorships> democratic trend

  34. More chronological events • Middle East: River Valley Civilizations > Byzantine Empire > Golden Rule of Islamic Rule > Crusades • Rise & Fall of Ottoman Empire • Turkey modernizes (Ataturk) • Arab-Israeli conflict (Zionism > Holocaust > wars > PLO > Camp David Accords > Intifada > conflict continues • Shah overthrown> Iranian Revolution (1979) > Islamic fundementalist state> war with Iraq/conflict with US • Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait >Gulf War • Taliban in Afghanistan overthrown by US

  35. Key People • Nationalists • Communists • Women • Supporters of Westernization • Religious leaders • Ruthless Leaders • Enlightened thinkers • others

  36. Nationalists • Simon Bolivar, Toussaint L’Overture Latin America: Jose de San Martin • Italy: Cavour, Mazzini, Garabaldi • India: Mohandas Gandhi • Africa: Kenyatta(Kenya), Nkruma(Ghana) • China: Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek • Middle East: Arafat (Palestine), Ben-Gurion (Israel - Zionist)

  37. Communists • Karl Marx (Marxist/ Marxist Socialism/ communism) • V.I. Lenin (Russia/U.S.S.R.) • Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) • Fidel Castro (Cuba) • Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping (China) • Ho Chi Mihn (Vietnam) • Kim Jong Ill (North Korea)

  38. Women • World Leaders: Indira Gandhi (India), Benazar Bhutto (Pakistan), Golda Meir (Israel), Margaret Thatcher (Great Britain) • Humanitarian Concerns: Mother Tereasa (India), Aung Su (Myanmar), Rigoberta Menchu (Guatamala) • Enlightened thinker: Mary Wollstonecraft

  39. Supporters of Westernization • Russia: Catherine the Great, Peter the Great • Iran: Shah Rezi Pahlevi • Turkey: Kemel Aturk • Japan: Emperor Meiji

  40. Religious leaders • Martin Luther • Goal: to reform Roman Catholic Church • Action: posted 95 Thesis, believed in faith alone for salvation • Reformation shattered religious unity in Europe

  41. Religious leaders • Ayatollah Khomeini • Goal: remove Shah Reza Pahlavi and western influence and replace it with an Islamic Fundementalist state • Impact: Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979. Government required strict adherence to Islamic law and enacted anti-western policies, held American hostages for over one year, women lost rights

  42. Ruthless Leaders • Adolf Hitler (Germany) • Pol Pot (Cambodia) • Slobadon Milosevic (Serbia) • Mao Zedong (China) • Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)

  43. Enlightened Thinkers • John Locke • Rousseau • Voltaire • Mary Wollstonecraft • Montesquieu

  44. Other Key People • Adam Smith: wrote The Wealth of Nations advocating laissez-faire capitalism (gov’t leaves businesses alone) • Machiavelli: wrote The Prince, a handbook for rulers, “the ends justify the means” & “it is better to be feared than loved” • Nelson Mandela: first black South African president, fought against apartheid

  45. Economic Systems • Traditional: based on barter (trade) • Manorialism:feudal manors (self-sufficient) • Mercantilism: export more than import, led to imperialism • Free market/ Laissez-faire capitalism: based on profit, private ownership, little gov’t interference • Command/ communism/ Marxist socialism: gov’t makes all economic decisions, no private ownership

  46. Human Rights Violations • Denial of basic political, economic and social rights to which all humans are entitiled • Jews in Middle Ages/pogroms in Russia/Holocaust • Apartheid: blacks in South Africa • Untouchables in India • Students in China (Cultural Rev./Tiananmen Square) • Dissidents under Stalin & other communist leaders • Urban population in Cambodia (Khmer Rouge) • Tutsies in Rwanda • Muslims in Bosnia • Women under Taliban rule

  47. Early Civilization Contributions • Mesopotamia: legal system, wheel, irrigation, cuniform (Sumerian writing) • Egypt: hieroglyphics, medicine, architecture • Phoenicians: alphabet • China:silk-making, gunpowder • Hebrews:monotheism, Ten Commandments • Muslims:algebra, astronomy, medicine • Gupta: zero, decimal, Arabic numerals • Rome: law, aqueducts, architecture • Mauryan: spread of Buddhism, organized government

  48. Organizations & Groups • European Union (EU) a growing group made up of European nations. Its goal is to expand free trade (no tariffs). Use euro. • Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)Its goal is to create an independent state in Palestine (conflict with Israel) • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Its goal is to control the oil industry by setting production levels & prices. • United Nations (UN) Its goals are to promote global peace and encourage economic and social well-being.

  49. More organizations • North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO): a growing military alliance between democratic nations (former communist nations) • Warsaw Pact: a counter military alliance made up of the Soviet Union and its satellite nations (Cold War) • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): its goal is to promote free trade between US, Canada and Mexico (pros and cons)

  50. Nationalism • Devotion to one’s nation’s independence • Groups seeking independence • Chechyns in Russia • Tibetans in China • Kurds in Iraq • Albanians in Kosovo • Palestinians in Palestine