WRITING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL Research processWriting the proposal Session1
Write Research Proposal Research process
Topic should be: • Appealing • Interesting • Manageable • Beneficial • BUT not controversial or theory-generating PHRASING • IV and DV – Quantitative eg correlational studies • The effectiveness of motivation program on students’ CGPA • Phenomena observed – Qualitative eg case study • Arabic women and English language learning: A case study ACTIVITY: Brainstorm List ALL the topics that you can do. Select a topic
Teaching English in South Korea: Studying, shaping, and representing my expatriate experiences Theory and original fiction • Arabic women and English language learning: A case study • The Effect of an English Language Learner Program on Student Achievement Outcomes in Language, Reading, and Math • Assessing the Impact of Computer Programming in Understanding Limits and Derivatives in a Secondary Mathematics Classroom Engineering & Applied Sciences (eg computer) • Integrated Thermal Design and Optimization Study for Active • Integrated Power Electronic Modules (IPEMs) • Applying convex optimization techniques to energy minimization problems in computer vision • Domain adaptation of natural language processing systems Let’s explore I-portal for thesis titleshttp://iportal.ump.edu.my
Present your working title. • Explain to the class why you have chosen this title – rationale/ problem you observed/ new invention/ necessity to society, etc. • Give feedback to friends’ titles. • Use powerpoint for your presentation – 1 slide is ENOUGH. Individual presentation
Statement of problem should be answering these questions: • what is the problem that you observe/encounter? • how does your work link to the work of others in the same or related fields? • would your work support or contest the work of others? • what difference do you think your research will make/what new insights may be found? • what research ‘gaps’ will you be filling by undertaking your project? • how might your research ‘add value’ to the subject? • why is your research important? Think of a problemSession2
Read the Statement of problem provided. Identify: • What is the importance of this study? • What is the problem identified? • What is the aim of the study? Task
Try and draft your problem statement. • Use the same powerpoint as continuation of today’s presentation – 1 slide is enough.
Research aim or objective: the specific accomplishments the researcher hopes to achieve by conducting the study • Research objective is stated in a To + infinitive clause • Research question: statement of specific query the researcher wants to answer to address the research problem • Research question is stated as a question Research Objectives &/ QuestionsSession3
To what extent are final projects/theses written in English? What is the estimate of the level of English of theses written in English?What are the current methods of language help available/used?What challenges are reported when it comes to the current processes?What improvements could be made either by joint efforts or at the level of individual institutions?
The aim of this study is to fill this gap by analyzing the feedback provided on students’ writing through their Wiki sites and assessing its impact on ESL student’s engineering report writing skills. The objective of the research is: • to investigate the impact of feedback given via Wiki on ESL students’ report writing. RQ1: How has the language used by ESL engineering students in their reports improved after receiving feedback via Wiki?RQ2: How has the quality of ESL engineering students’ reports improved after receiving feedback via Wiki?
Formulate your: • Research objective/s • Research questions • Present on powerpoint slide as such: - Title - RO - RQ Task
In evaluating literature the following questions should be asked1. What type of research has been done in the area? 2. What research questions have been asked (what theories have been posed)?3. How have researchers gone about answering those questions? That is how did they define variables? What research methods did they use?4. What suggestions do other researchers make for further study?5. What has not been investigated?6. How can the proposedstudy add to further knowledge in the area? Conduct a literature reviewSession4
Conduct a literature review • Go to the library/ iportal • Browse for journals relevant to your study • Use keyword search to find a minimum of five journal articles relevant to your study • Read the journals and complete the literature review table as shown. • Put the table on the powerpoint slide that you have been using. • In the next class, present to the class what you have found. Homework for tomorrow’s class
Present you Literature Review table to the class. Review of homework taskSession3
The literature review: • helps place the proposed study under the general body of knowledge & saves duplication • helps anticipate possible causes, effects, and complex processes of the problem under investigation • is NOT a summary of related works nor a mere listing of previous research BUT a critical appreciation of relevant literature conceptually integrated within the logic of the proposed investigation • should show similarities & differences with other relevant research • provides the theoretical foundations/ framework of the study • can provide conceptual/operational definitions Literature review in proposal
Go to: http://uhe3142project-based-proposal-writing.wikispaces.com/Literature+Review Identify: • the structure of a good literature review paragraph • useful language expressions • techniques of being critical
Theories underlying the study: • Title: The effect of online chat on students’ revision process • Theoretical foundation/framework: process writing, computer-mediated communication, interaction • Group your literature review to areas/ issues/ theories in your Theoretical foundation/framework Theoretical foundation/ framework
1.5 WIKIS IN THE ESL WRITING CLASSROOM The application of computer technology in ESL writing classroom is not something new and has been found to be beneficial in developing students‟ writing skills (Cunningham , 2000; Goldberg, Russell and Cook, 2003) and enhancing their writing process (Price, 1997; Lee, 2004; Ware, 2004). The tools used have evolved from the use of software, word processor to synchronous or asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools. Today, Web 2.0 applications like blog and wikis are seen as the “second generation Web which offer powerful opportunities for online collaboration for both language professionals and learners” (Godwin-Jones, 2003: 12). Wikis is an editable, web-based free authoring tool which allows users to create a fully editable website (Boulos, et al., 2006). Visitors to the website can easily read, and edit or modify content, structure or design of the website directly on the page, often without the need for registration (Augar, et al., 2004; Tonkin, 2005; Boulos, et al., 2006; Wang & Turner, 2004; Charles & Ranmi, 2007). Wikis can be easily used for writing instruction especially for process and collaborative writing activities (Chen et al., 2005). The software makes the writing process visible, for example, the writer‟s edits can be viewed on the screen. It provides a platform for instructors to monitor the students‟ writing development and give feedback at any stage of their writing process (Carr, et al., 2007:280). In addition a group of students can work together on a writing task, editing and building on one another‟s work or a student can work with the instructor one-on-one receiving feedback and revising the written work without having to meet face-to-face. The tool also allows those browsing the wikis site to take a dual role of reader and writer (LeLoup & Ponterio, 2006). Thus this tool can free students and teachers from the rigid time-constraints of the classroom and facilitates meaningful creation of knowledge online (Lamb, 2004). The facilities available on wikis make it a feasible tool for teaching writing. It can be used to easily monitor students‟ writing progress. The students do not have to meet lecturers face-to-face. Instead, wikis can be used to provide support and feedback to students‟ written work without the constraints of time and place as compared to face-to-face consultations (Godwin-Jones, 2003). Sample
Write one section of your literature review Homework: submitted at end of week
Determine methodological orientation, data collection & data analysis proceduresSession5
Divide this section into: • Research design, • Population/ Participants, • Sample & sampling, • Data collection instrument/s, • Validity, reliability, • Procedures for data collection. for each of these you must provide: • A clear and meaningful reason for choosing your methodology such as from literature review. • example Data collection
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN This study adopted the case study approach as it aimed at looking at one particular phenomenon. McMillan (2004: 271) provides a comprehensive definition of a case study research below: A case study is an in-depth analysis of one or more events, settings, programs, social groups, communities, individuals and other bounded systems. The case study is an investigation of one entity, which is carefully defined and characterized by time and place. The single entity could be a person, a school or even an event. Yin (2003: 13) further emphasizes that the case study method is an empirical inquiry that can provide a holistic understanding of real-life events “especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident”. What this highlights is that case study can facilitate meaningful enquiry into everyday phenomena. The researcher believes that the context is as important as the phenomenon itself and seeks to find out how each contributed to and influenced the other. 3.3.4 DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTICIPANTSSeventeen undergraduate ESL engineering students from three intact classes enrolled in the Undergraduate Research Project 1 at the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Faculty of Electrical Engineering were selected as participants for this study. Non-random purposive sampling method was used to select the participants in order to elicit the data pertinent to this study. Random sampling is the primary method used to ensure external validity but non-random sampling is preferred when the nature of research or size of population under study is unsuitable for random sampling which requires a relatively large population (Babbie, 2001). Three possible methods of non-random sampling are systematic, convenience and purposive sampling (Mackey & Gass, 2005). Purposive sampling is commonly used when the researcher has selected the participants based on his/her knowledge of the participants and their relevance to the purpose of the study (Babbie, 2001). Purposive sampling is the main sampling strategy in qualitative research because it seeks rich and thick description through in-depth study of particular subjects (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006, Patton, 1990, Wiersma, 2000). The participants were students who stayed on in the class for the ten-week period of the study and continually posted drafts on their wikispaces. All of the participants were 21 year-old, fourth year students. They had completed their compulsory eight credits of English and a total of 80 credits of the graduation requirements. These courses were the pre-requisite for URP 1.
Divide this section into: • Describing the method/ procedure/ scheme you are going to use to analyse each type of data collected - You might have a coding system/ sheet to analyse each data • Rationale for choosing that particular method/ procedure/ scheme (literature review) Data analysis procedures
Title • Background of the study • Statement of the problem • RO – RQ • Methodology – data collection and data analysis procedures • Expected outcome (engineering research) • Scope of study (engineering research) • Gantt chart - milestones Write the research proposal
Questions???? Thank you & Good luck