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Computer Architecture

Computer Architecture

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Computer Architecture

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  1. Computer Architecture Intro

  2. Computer Architecture • What is architecture? • architecture (n)(New Oxford American Dictionary) • 1) art or practice of designing and constructing buildings • 2) the complex or carefully designed structure of something • the conceptual structure and logical organization of a computer or computer-based system 2

  3. Computer Architecture • Different uses of term (comp.) architecture • Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) • Microarchitecture • Systems architecture 3

  4. Computer Architecture • ISA* • programmer-visible attributes of a system • interface b/w hardware and software • instruction set, # of bits to represent various data types, memory addressing modes 4

  5. Computer Architecture • Microarchitecture (computer organization) • functional units and their interconnections • implementation of a given ISA • transparent to programmer • control signals, interfaces b/w computer and peripherals, memory technology, # of caches, cache sizes, etc. 5

  6. Computer Architecture • Example of processors with similar architecture but different organization? • Intel CPUs • Advantage? • backward compatibility 6

  7. Why Study Computer Architecture? • Course is required for major • Learn how computers work • Write more efficient code • Debug low-level problems • Fight malware • Write system software 7

  8. Computer as Hierarchy of Levels 8

  9. Computer as Hierarchy of Levels • 5) High level language • 4) Assembly language • mnemonics for instructions, labels • 3) OS machine • hybrid -- instr. from level 2, plus memory management, multitasking 9

  10. Computer as Hierarchy of Levels • 2) Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) • native language, #’s • 1) Microarchitecture • registers, adders, ALU • 0) Digital logic • gates, clocks -- built from analog devices 10

  11. Computer as Hierarchy of Levels • -1) Device -- transistors, resistors 11