Sleep and Productivity What does the literature say?
There are two schools of thought regarding sleep! Could do with less!! Need More
“Sleep Less, Live More” by Everett Mattlin Mattlin believes that we should sleep more efficiently and that we can easily do with less sleep “Sleep Thieves” by Stanley Coren Coren maintains our society is sleep deprived and this leads to a decline in productivity Sleep Less, Live More Sleep Thieves Who is correct?
Sleep Less, Live More Sleep Thieves You Decide! • The first half of this slide presentation will present Mattlin’s views. • The second half of the slide presentation will present Coren’s views. • Who will you agree with?
Sleep Less, Live More Sleep Less, Live Moreby Everett Mattlin • How would you like to gain1-2 extra hours a day? • One way to get a couple of extra hours a day is to sleep less!!
Sleep Less, Live More How Much Sleep is Needed? • For centuries we have been told we need 8 hours of sleep! • Who has perpetuated this myth?
Sleep Less, Live More How Much Sleep is Needed? • Maimonides, a 12th century philosopher stated, “Eight hours for work, eight hours for play, and eight hours for sleep” • What does a philosopher know? • Was this based upon research?
Sleep Less, Live More How Much Sleep is Needed? • Parents have perpetuated this belief!!! They have told their kids: • “You need to go to bed and get your rest” • Translation “I’m tired and want you out of my hair.”
Sleep Less, Live More How Much Sleep is Needed? • Blue Cross/Blue Shield Ad from 1978 on how to stay healthy • Rule 7 • “Get seven to eight hours of sleep everyday”
Sleep Less, Live More How Much Do People Sleep? • Department of Commerce Study “Use of Time by City Dwellers”
Sleep Less, Live More How Much Do People Sleep? • Gallup Poll in USA, Great Britain, Canada, France, Norway, Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden
Sleep Less, Live More How Much Do People Sleep? • With differing lengths of light, how much do Eskimos sleep?
Sleep Less, Live More Sleep Times – General Population
Sleep Less, Live More How Much Do People Sleep? • Most people do indeed sleep 7-8 hours. • However, the normal range is 6-10 hours. • Sleep needs vary from individual to individual
Sleep Less, Live More Sleep Patterns Vary from the Cradle to the Grave! • Infants vary greatly in their sleep • Some sleep 20 hours per day, some 12 • Some babies sleep through the night at 2 months, some don’t • Yet, all these babies are healthy • This proves there is no magic number of sleep hours
Sleep Less, Live More Average Sleep Times • 2 years – 12 hours • 5 years – 11 hours • 6 – late teens – 7-8 hours • 18-20 – life pattern is established • 60+ - 6 ½ hours
Frederick the Great Duke of Wellington Napoleon Lyndon Johnson Harry Truman Jerry Lewis Michael Scully Jimmy Carter John Kennedy Thomas Edison Sleep Less, Live More Famous People Who Sleep 3-5 Hours
Sleep Less, Live More The Thesis of Sleep Less, Live More • Since many people function normally on less sleep, and sleep times vary, many people could probably get by on less sleep.
World Sleep Record • A 60+ year old Australian nurse • In a clinical setting, she averaged 1 hour and 7 minutes of sleep daily.
What Happens When People Sleep? • Scientific research on sleep has only been conducted for the past 50 years • We know there are several stages of sleep • What are the sleep stages • What happens in each stage
Sleep Stages • Sleep stages are cyclical in nature. • During a typical night, one will cycle through these stages 4-6 times • Each cycle lasts about 90 minutes
Sleep Less, Live More Stage 1 Sleep • Transition from wake to sleep • Found at the beginning and end of night and during periods of body movement • People aroused in Stage 1 sleep will claim not to be asleep • 3-8% of Total Sleep Time (TST) is spent in stage 1.
Sleep Less, Live More Stage 2 Sleep • People awaken in stage 2 will generally claim to be asleep. • About 50% of person's sleep is in stage 2.
Sleep Less, Live More Stage 2 Sleep… • Scientists are not sure of the function of stage 2 sleep. It is seen as a filter between SWS (Slow Wave Sleep) and REM (Rapid Eye Movement).
Sleep Less, Live More Stage 2 Sleep… • People who are deprived of SWS or REM sleep will reduce stage 2 sleep on later nights. Scientists take this an indication that stage 2 sleep is not that important. • People who sleep less hours per night don't have much stage 2 sleep.
Sleep Less, Live More Stage 2 Sleep… • Stage 2 sleep occurs more in the later parts of night. Scientist believe it would occur earlier if it was important. • There is a correlation between the amount of stage 2 sleep and how well people "think" they slept.
Sleep Less, Live More Sleep Stages 1 2
Sleep Less, Live More Stage 3 & 4 Sleep • Technically, there is a difference in stage 3 and stage 4 sleep but they are often grouped together because of the slow alpha waves found in both stages of sleep (SWS).
Sleep Less, Live More Stage 3 & 4 Sleep • Deep Sleep. • Most difficult to arouse (both verbally and with lights) people from this stage of sleep. • People awakened may be confused and perform tasks with difficulty.
Sleep Less, Live More Stage 3 & 4 Sleep • Constitutes 16-25% of the total sleep. • Occurs early in the sleep cycle, decreases as time goes on. • Few Body Movements. • People deprived of SWS will regain it on subsequent nights.