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Scaffolding Reading Comprehension

Scaffolding Reading Comprehension

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Scaffolding Reading Comprehension

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  1. Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Before, During, and After Reading Strategies & Routines for Success Office of Special Programs

  2. Before During After Comprehension is the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language. It consists of three elements: • The reader • The text • The activity or purpose for reading (Rand Reading Study Group, 2002) Office of Special Programs, Extended and early learning

  3. What should happen before, during and after reading? Office of Special Programs, Extended and Early Learning

  4. Scaffolding reading in the elementary grades The Scaffolding Reading in the Elementary Grades modules provide the instructional routines and strategies teachers need to help students extract and construct meaning. Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  5. Before reading • Teach the pronunciation of difficult to read words • Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words • Teach or activate any necessary background knowledge • Preview the story or the article Module Contents Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  6. During reading • Utilize passage reading procedures that provide adequate reading practice • Ask appropriate questions during passage reading • Teach strategies that can be applied to passage reading • Use graphic organizers to enhance comprehension Module Contents Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  7. After reading • Provide intentional fluency building practice • Engage students in a discussion • Have students answer written questions • Provide engaging vocabulary practice • Have students write summaries of what they have read Module Contents Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  8. Snapshots of the instructional practices and routines Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  9. Before reading Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  10. Before reading If students can read the words in a passage accurately and fluently, their reading comprehension will be enhanced. BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  11. Teach the pronunciation of difficult to read words. Procedures for telling the word(s). This word is ____________________ . What word _____________________? Spell and read the word. _________________ focus inspector glimpse spectator Office of Special Programs, Extended and Early Learning

  12. A Strategy Modeled Decoding Instruction, 1st Grade Office of Special Programs, Extended and Early Learning

  13. If students understand the meaning of critical vocabulary in the passage, their comprehension will be enhanced. BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  14. Teach the meaning of critical, unknown words • Tier One: Basic words • Chair, bed, happy, house • Tier Two: Words in general use, but not common • Concentrate, absurd, fortunate, relieved, dignity • Tier Three: Rare words limited to a specific domain • Tundra, igneous rocks, weathering Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  15. Key concepts in teaching critical, unknown words • Select words that are unknown and critical to passage understanding. • Select words students are likely to encounter in the future • Tier 2 words • Academic vocabulary • Student-friendly explanations Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  16. Example: teaching critical, unknown words Select three words for robust explicit instruction. Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  17. Student-friendly explanations • Dictionary Definition • Relieved – (1) to free wholly from pain, stress, pressure. (2) to lessen or alleviate, as pain or pressure • Student Friendly Explanation • When something that is difficult is over or never happened at all, you feel relieved. Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  18. Student friendly definitions Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  19. Activity: creating student- friendly explanations • Gape - to open the mouth wide involuntarily, as the result of hunger, sleepiness, or absorbed attention • Glimpse – 1) momentary or slight appearance, 2) a vague idea; inkling. • Scrutinize - to examine in detail with careful or critical attention Office of Special Programs, Extended and Early Learning

  20. Collins Cobuild Student Dictionary http://www.elearnaid.com/coconewstdis.html

  21. A Strategy Vocabulary Instruction, 2nd Grade Office of Special Programs, Extended and Early Learning

  22. If students have the background knowledge required by a passage, their comprehension will be enhanced. BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  23. Teach or activate necessary background knowledge. Strategy #3 Example • Prior to passage reading, select and read aloud a book that provides necessary background knowledge • Passage: Me and Uncle Romie • Background knowledge needed: Life in a big city Office of Special Programs, Extended and Early Learning

  24. Activating Background Knowledge Office of Special Programs, Extended and Early Learning

  25. background knowledge B-K-W-L-Q Front load, front load, front load!! (Adapted from Ogale’s KWL by J. Allen) Office of Special Programs, Extended and Early Learning

  26. If students preview a passage, their comprehension is enhanced. BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  27. During reading Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  28. Asking students questions during passage reading has proven effectiveness in improving the comprehension of students. BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  29. Questioning the author: An approach for enhancing student engagement with text(Beck, McKeown, Hamilton & Kucan, 1997) • Comprehension strategy to teach students to construct meaning during reading • Queries, or discussion questions, encourage students to engage with ideas in text to build meaning • Queries help teachers facilitate group discussion and student-to-student interaction Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  30. Query examples • What is the author trying to say? • Why do you think the author used the following phrase? • Does this make sense to you? Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  31. Instruction in specific cognitive strategies can improve reading comprehension for all students and, most particularly, can assist struggling readers. (RAND Reading Study Group, 2002) BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  32. Cognitive strategies • Competent Readers Strategies • Text Structure Strategies • Fix-Up Strategies • Reread • Look back • Read ahead • Restate in your own words Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  33. The ability to identify and take advantage of text organization can contribute to students’ comprehension. (Dickson, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998) BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  34. Text organization • Story Grammar • Title, author, setting, main characters, conflict resolution, events, conclusion • Patterns of Expository Text • Each paragraph is a body of knowledge • Determine topic of paragraph • Determine critical supporting details Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  35. Strategy Example • Paragraph Shrinking • Name the who or what. • Tell the most important thing about the who or what. • Say the main idea in 10 words or less. Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  36. The main effect of graphic organizers appears to be on the improvement of the reader’s memory for the content that has been read. (Dickson, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998) BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  37. Graphic organizers • Narrative Text (Story Maps) • Expository Text (Flow charts, compare/contrast) Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  38. After reading Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  39. Fluencyis related to reading comprehension. (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998; Fuchs, Fuchs, & Maxwell, 1988) BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  40. fluency • Repeated Reading • Cold-timing • Accuracy Practice • Fluency Building • Hot-timing Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  41. Engaging students in a discussion can increase their depth of text processing and subsequent comprehension. BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  42. discussion • Teach discussion behavior. Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  43. Writing about what you have read can improve your comprehension. • Expressing your ideas in writing helps the reader organize ideas. BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  44. Writing about what you have read can improve your comprehension. • Expressing your ideas in writing helps the reader organize ideas. BIG IDEA Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  45. Students must • Read, • And read, • And read, • And read, • And read some more! Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  46. WVDE Lesson plan template Reading Lesson Plan Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning

  47. Contact Information Phyllis Veith, Assistant Director, Office of Special Programs pveith@access.k12.wv.us Linda Palenchar, Coordinator, Office of Special Programs lpalench@access.k12.wv.us Office of Special Programs, extended and early learning