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Comparing Citation Styles

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  1. Comparing Citation Styles

  2. General Rules • Whatever style used, an article should use that style consistently throughout. • What must be cited varies based on the citation style. • In MLA, the chosen style for this course, all material that is not either common knowledge or original work must be cited, whether it is quoted directly, summarized, or paraphrased. • Punctuation matters. Always make sure that your citation entries are formatted and punctuated correctly.

  3. MLA Citation: The Basics • Generally used in the humanities, especially in literature studies. • Two components: Works Cited Page and In-Text Citations. • Works Cited Format: • Author Last Name, First Name(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year Published): page numbers. Medium. • Example: Farnell, Gary. “Gothic’s Death Drive.” Literature Compass 8.9 (2011): 592-608. Print. • In-Text Citation Format: • At the end of a sentence: (Author Last Name, Page Number). • If author was mentioned in the sentence itself: (Page Number).

  4. APA Citation: The Basics • Typically used in social sciences. • Two components: References page and in-text citations. • Yes, the different names matter. • Reference entries: • Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year). Title of article: Title is left uncapitalized except for starting words. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), Page Numbers. • Example: Docherty, N. M. (2012). Missing referents, psychotic symptoms, and discriminating the internal from the externalized. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 121(2), 416-423. • In-text citations: • Place (Year) after author’s last name in text, place (pg. number) after a direct quotation.

  5. Compare These Styles MLA APA Royle, N. (2013). To awake, Shakespeare of the night. Paragraph: A Journal of Modern Critical Theory 36(2), 223-239. In-Text: According to Royle (2013) . . . (pg. 225). Royle, Nicholas. “To Awake, Shakespeare of the Night.” Paragraph: A Journal of Modern Critical Theory36.2 (2013): 223-239. Print. In-Text: (Royle225). OR (225). Check Your Article’s Citations. Which One is Yours?

  6. Chicago Style • One of the oldest citation styles; MLA and APA are both more recent. • Uses footnotes or endnotes for in-text citation and a bibliography after any notes. • Entries for a document in foot/endnotes: 1.Author First Name, Last Name(s), “Title of Article,” Title of Journal Volume, no. of Issue (Year): Page number. Later entries: 2. Author Last Name, “Title of Article,” Page number.

  7. Chicago Continued Entry for the bibliography: Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume, no. of issue (Year): Page number. Example: Farnell, Gary. “Gothic’s Death Drive.” Literature Compass 8, no. 9 (2011): 592-608.

  8. Compare Styles MLA Chicago Royle, Nicholas. “To Awake, Shakespeare of the Night.” Paragraph: A Journal of Modern Critical Theory 36, no. 2 (2013): 223-239. Foot/Endnotes: Nicholas Royle, “To Awake, Shakespeare of the Night,” Paragraph: A Journal of Modern Critical Theory 36, no. 2 (2013): 225. 3. Boyle, “To Awake, Shakespeare of the Night,” 227. Royle, Nicholas. “To Awake, Shakespeare of the Night.” Paragraph: A Journal of Modern Critical Theory 36.2 (2013): 223-239. Print. In-Text: (Royle 225). OR (225).

  9. CSE Style • Often used in physical sciences and mathematics. • Three possible formats: • Citation-Sequence: Articles are numbered and organized in order of appearance. • Citation-Name: Articles are numbered and organized alphabetically. • Name-Year: Articles are organized alphabetically without numbers.

  10. CSE Reference Entries: • Citation-Sequence or Citation-Name: • Author Last Name(s), First Initial(s). Title of article. Title of Journal. Year;Volume(Issue):Page Numbers. • Name-Year: Author Last Name(s), First Initial(s). Year. Title of article. Title of Journal. Volume(Issue):Page Numbers.

  11. CSE In-Text Citations • Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name: • Add a superscript to the name of the author when first referenced. Use the same superscript whenever referenced. • According to Royle1 . . . • Name-Year: • Place year of the article in parentheses after author name. • According to Royle (2013) . . .

  12. Compare Styles MLA CSE Royle, N. To awake, Shakespeare of the night. Paragraph: A Journal of Modern Critical Theory. 2013;36(2):223-239. OR Royle, N. 2013. To awake, Shakespeare of the night. Paragraph: A Journal of Modern Critical Theory. 36(2):223-239. In-Text: Royle1 OR Royle (2013). Royle, Nicholas. “To Awake, Shakespeare of the Night.” Paragraph: A Journal of Modern Critical Theory 36.2 (2013): 223-239. Print. In-Text: (Royle 225). OR (225).

  13. MLA Exceptions • What if I found my article online? • Use “Web.” for the “Medium” section of the entry. • Add the date you read/used the article in the following format: Day Month Year. • Ex: 22 Feb 2013. • What if my article has multiple authors? • If it has three or fewer authors: • List every author’s last name in in-text citations. • List every author’s name in full in the Works Cited entry. • If it has four or more authors: • Use the first author’s full name, followed by et al. in both the in-text citations and the Works Cited entry.

  14. Resources for Citation Style • St. Martin’s Handbook • Chapters 16-19. • Covers each of the four styles described today in detail. • Purdue Online Writing Lab • Covers APA and MLA style in-depth.

  15. Finding More Sources • Breadcrumb Method: • Find sources in your original article to which the author frequently refers. Highlight or circle them and research them at a later date. • Citation Method: • Using Google Scholar or EBSCO, identify how often an article has been cited. Check the articles that have cited your article.