SHAPES OF THE EARTH SURFACE BY : Bu susilowati
STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH LANDFORM AND ROCK
ENDOGENIC PROCESS ENDOGENIC PROCESS IS THE POWER COMING FROM INSIDE THE EARTH 4 EXOGENIC PROCESS IT IS THE POWER COMING FROM OUTSIDE THE EARTH 29
ENDOGENIC PROCESS 5 • TECTONISM • VULCANISM • EARTHQUAKE 17 27
TECTONISM • Tectonic movement is the movement that comes from inside the Earth because of magma always move Two types of tectonic movement namely: • Orogenetic tectonic movement is a movement of the Earth’s crust which happens relatively fast . 7
2. Epyrogenetic tectonic movement is a movement of the Earth’s crust which happens very slowly in along time, covering huge areas. For example the formation of highland because elevation Two types of epyrogenetic namely: Positive epyrogenetic is the moving down of the land so that the sea level look as if it rose Negative epyrogenetic is the moving up of the land so that the sea level look as if it get down
The results of orogenetic • Fold Fold is formed because the tectonic plate gets horizontal or vertical pressure that has plastic characteristic b. Fault Fault is rock fracturing and displacement 7 13
The top of fold is called anticline (a) and the valley of fold is called syncline (b) The example of fold mountain range is Kendeng mountain range in Java
The type of fault namely : • Horst 2. Graben/slenk • For example of the fault mountain range is southern mountain range in Java and Nusakambangan 4
Pergeseran kerak bumi atau diastropisme merupakan terjadinya pergeseran muka bumi yang dipengaruhi oleh adanya gerakan-gerakan kerak bumi. Gerakan-gerakan tersebut mengakibatkan terjadinya perubahan bentuk yang menghasilkan pola baru yang disebut struktur diastropik. Termasuk dalam struktur diastropik tersebut, yaitu pelengkungan, pelipatan, patahan, dan retakan. Diastrophism is a general term that refers to deformation of the Earth's crust. Diastrophic movement can be classified as two types, folding and faulting.
Volcanism is the even when magma gets on to the earth surface and some of it moves to the earth crust layer • The study of volcanoes is called vulcanology (or volcano logy in some spellings). • Volcanic activity is often accompanied by earthquakes, hot springs, fumaroles, solfatare and geysers
VULCANISM Pacific Rim Belt of Active Tectonics, Seismicity,and Volcanism—The Ring of Fire
Sill is caused by horizontal intrusion of magma which gets between two layers of rocks • laccolite is a formation which is caused by the entry of magma between two layers of rocks and then pushes up so its shape a curve on the upper side and flat at the bottom • batholiths is magma which freezes inside the magma chamber • dike is caused by vertical intrusion of magma which gets among layers of rocks
Materials of volcano • Lava is magma in the chamber is forced upwards and flows from a vent • lahar is hot lava as the result of mixture between lava and water • Solid volcanic materials ( eflata) : • volcanic bomb is big rocks • Tephra is small rocks • Volcanic sand • Volcanic dust • Gaseous material : • Solfatara is sulphur gas • Fumaroles is water vapor • Mofette is carbon dioxide
Earthquake is the vibration of earth crust that is caused by powers in the earth • Hypocenter or known as the focus, is the location at which rupture occurs within the earth (the source of quake inside the earth layer) • Epicenter is the point on the ground surface directly above the focus (source of quake on the earth surface) • Types of earthquake based on the causes are: • tectonic earthquake • volcanic earthquake • tremor earthquake
Seismograph is the tool for earthquake • recording • Seismogram is the recorded data of • seismograph • Homoseista is a line that connects places • on the surface of the earth that is • passed by the quake at the same time • Isoseista is a line that connects places on • the surface of the earth that is passed • by the quake at the same intensity 3
There is three exogenic processes namely : • Weathering is the destruction process of the rocks on the earth • a. physical/mechanical weathering • b. chemical weathering • c. organic weathering
Physical/mechanical weathering Physical/mechanical weathering is the weathering which entirely changes the rock mechanical without change the rock characteristic. It happens because of the different temperature Chemical weathering chemical weathering is the process of rock mass destruction followed by changes of it’s chemical structure, such as karst. Its result is stalactite, stalagmite Organic weathering Organic weathering is the weathering caused by living thing (organism) such as plants, animal, and humans
2. Erosion is the wearing away of rock or soil which is done by water, wind, or glacier a. river erosion, also called corrosion b. rainwater erosion c. seawater erosion, also called abrasion d. wind erosion, also called deflation e. glacier erosion
Sedimentation is a process accumulation of material carried away by water, wind, or glacier at a place for a certain period of time or for along term • River sedimentation • The form some shapes of river sedimentation as follows : • Delta • Meander • Flood plain
b. Wind sedimentation • c. Seawater sedimentation • d. Glacier sedimentation
ROCKS The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. In general rocks are of three types, namely, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, and petrology is an essential component of geology.
Igneous rocks are formed when molten magma cools and are divided into two main categories: plutonic rock and volcanic. Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the Earth's crust (example granite), while volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or fragmental ejecta (examples pumice and basalt) .
Sedimentary rocks are formed by deposition of either clasticsediments, organic matter, or chemical precipitates (evaporites), followed by compaction of the particulate matter and cementation during diagenesis. Sedimentary rocks form at or near the Earth's surface. Metamorphic rocks are formed by subjecting any rock type (including previously-formed metamorphic rock) to different temperature and pressure conditions than those in which the original rock was formed.
This diamond is a mineral from within an igneous or metamorphic rock that formed at high temperature and pressure.
sedimentation sediments and sedimentary rocks erosion tectonic burial and metamorphism igneous rocks metamorphic rocks crystallisation (freezing of rock) magma melting The rock cycle. Legend: 1 = magma; 2 = crystallisation (freezing of rock); 3 = igneous rocks; 4 = erosion; 5 = sedimentation; 6 = sediments and sedimentary rocks; 7 = tectonic burial and metamorphism; 8 = metamorphic rocks; 9 = melting.