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The Reformation

The Reformation

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The Reformation

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  1. The Reformation

  2. The Reformation The demand for religious changes in the church Martin Luther (1483-1546) --born into a miner’s family in Saxony in central Germany --Studying to become a lawyer --Has two life changing experiences

  3. The Reformation Bolt of Lighting He is crossing a field during a thunderstorm. He is thrown to the ground by a bolt of lighting. He cries out to St. Anne that he would enter a monastery. He is obsessed with his own sinfulness and joins a monastery in the hope that he would overcome his sense of guilt. His superiors realized his intellectual gifts and assigned him to the university at Wittenberg in 1508. He has his second life changing experience in 1512.

  4. The Reformation The Experience in the Tower He realized that he only needed to rely on god’s mercy. This was achieved by faith alone.

  5. The Reformation Indulgence Controversy What is an indulgence? It released a sinner from a certain period of punishment in purgatory before they went to heaven. It was sold originally to people going on a crusade. Why is this an issue? In 1517, Johann Tetzel was selling indulgences as part of a fund-raiser to pay for St. Peter’ s church in Rome

  6. The Reformation So, why is it a problem? Tetzel sells indulgences without mentioning repentance. Martin Luther hears of this and posts the 95 Theses on October 31, 1517. He believes the promise of a general pardon is DAMNABLE

  7. The Reformation

  8. The Reformation The Diet of Worms 1520 Pope Leo X issued a bull excommunicating Luther. In 1521, Emperor Charles V, the Pope’s secular representative calls for Luther’s arrest and burning of his works. German princes aid him.

  9. The Reformation Diet of Worms Anton Alexander von Werner

  10. The Reformation Diet of Worms

  11. The Reformation Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms

  12. The Reformation Lutheran Doctrine and Practice 1. Nominalism The primacy of faith, the inadequacy of reason and the unknowableness of God.

  13. The Reformation Lutheran Doctrine and Practice 2. Faith and the Bible The Bible is the sole source of religious authority. Faith alone, not good works or receiving the sacraments, justifies the believer.

  14. The Reformation Lutheran Doctrine and Practice 3. Sacraments and the Mass Baptism and Eucharist are the only ones mentioned in the Bible. Transubstantiation VS. Consubstantiation Christian Lutheran Wafer and wine retain their appearance The real presence of Christ and the natural but their substance is transformed into substance coexist within the wafer and wine. the body and blood of Christ.

  15. The Reformation Lutheran Doctrine and Practice 4. Translation of the Bible The translation of the Bible was completed in 1534.

  16. The Reformation The Reformation

  17. The Reformation Spread of Lutheranism Ways Lutheranism spread printing press pamphlets broadsides princes/rulers Any person who accepted the basic doctrines of faith alone and scripture as the sole authority could be a Lutheran

  18. The Reformation Spread of Lutheranism Princes’ Issues If they follow Luther ………. but If they remain loyal ………

  19. The Reformation Spread of Lutheranism Princes’ Issues If they follow Luther, they could lose their titles but If they remain loyal, they could blackmail the church to becoming Lutheran

  20. The Reformation Why Lutherans = Protestants Diet of Speyer 1529 Princes sign a decree protesting that no religious innovations were to be introduced in the Empire. 1550s—half the population of Europe is Lutheran

  21. The Reformation Diet at Augsberg 1555 Compromise, each prince was allowed to determine the religion of his own territory

  22. The Reformation John Calvin (1509–1564) --a lawyer --moves to Switzerland because of his religious views. --He had been persecuted in France

  23. The Reformation Similarities with Lutherans --Accepted Baptism and Eucharist --Regarded all occupations as worthy --Upheld social and political authority Differences with Lutherans --Eucharist, the body of Christ was there only in spirit and consumed only in spirit --Predestination nothing can be done to save a person. It’s up to god to save a person.

  24. The Reformation Morality and Discipline --Strict moral code --Self-examination, Bible study --Public confession French Calvinist=Huguenot English Calvinist=Puritan

  25. Counter Reformation The Catholic Revival Begins in the 1530s, Pope Paul III elected in 1534 until 1549. The church was reacting as a result of criticism

  26. Counter Reformation The Council of Trent

  27. Counter Reformation Doctrine --Affirm teachings that the Protestants rejected --Human will is free --Good works and faith = salvation --Seven sacraments are channels of grace

  28. Counter Reformation Reforms Inquisition Index of Forbidden Books Informed Catholics of heretical works they were not allowed to read Women Religious orders for women identified with charitable works Philanthropic Activities Assistance to the poor, new hospitals, assistance to to orphans and other unfortunates

  29. inquisition Inquisition An inquiry before a jury (Catholic tribunal) for the discovery of heresy.

  30. inquisition Inquisition An inquiry before a jury (Catholic tribunal) for the discovery of heresy.

  31. inquisition Inquisition--History Medieval Inquisition 1231 Pope Gregory IX --Started for the apprehension and trial of heretics also witches, diviners and blasphemers --A method of formal trial for heretics instead of mob mentality.

  32. inquisition Inquisition Spanish Inquisition --started in 1478 by Pope Sixtus IV until 1834. Ferdinand and Isabella assume power in 1474. By 1479, they consolidated their power and utilized religion as a means of control, this completed their drive for centralization of power.

  33. inquisition Inquisition Jews—Marranos (Conversos) Pretended to accept Christianity but retained original beliefs Muslims—Moriscos

  34. inquisition Inquisition Roman Inquisition Pope Paul III --Started in 1542, alarmed by the spread of Protestantism

  35. inquisition Inquisition How does it work? Edict of Grace—anyone conscious of heresy given the chance to confess. Tribunal Officers—Accusations were made Act of Faith—those accused of heresy were sentenced.

  36. inquisition Inquisition Punishment Confinement to a dungeon, physical abuse or torture. If one did not confess, burned at the stake.