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THE MUSLIM WORLD. THE RISE OF ISLAM ISLAM SPREADS GOLDEN AGE OF MUSLIM CIVILIZATION MUSLIMS IN INDIA THE OTTOMAN AND SAFAVID EMPIRES. THE RISE OF ISLAM. Islam was founded on the Arabian Peninsula in the year 622 by the Prophet Muhammad Muhammad was born in Mecca in the year 570

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  2. THE RISE OF ISLAM • Islam was founded on the Arabian Peninsula in the year 622 by the Prophet Muhammad • Muhammad was born in Mecca in the year 570 • Muhammad claimed Allah came to him in his dreams and told him how he wanted people to live on earth • The revelations continued until Muhammad’s death in 632 • Hijra: in 622 Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina in fear of persecution by Mecca’s leaders (marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar)

  3. MAJOR BELIEFS • Islam means “submission to the will of God” • 5 Pillars • Declaration of Faith: there is only one god and Muhammad is his messenger • Daily Prayer: pray five times a day facing the holy city of Mecca • Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan • Paying alms – charity to the poor • Hajj: make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your lifetime, if able • Mosque: Muslim house of worship • Kaaba: it is believed to be the very first house of worship built by Abraham

  4. MAJOR BELIEFS Jihad: struggle in God’s service; can be interpreted differently • Spiritual effort to overcome immorality within themselves • Used warfare to spread or defend Islam Quran: the sacred text of Islam • Final authority on all matters & complete guide to life Sharia: body of law that interpreted the Quran and applied its teachings to daily life • Regulates moral conduct, business practices, family life, government • Does not separate religious matters from criminal or civil law – Applies the Quran to all legal matters

  5. THE DEATH OF MUHAMMAD • Muhammad died in 632 C.E. without naming a successor (caliph) • This caused conflict that continues to today • Abu Bakr(a close companion of Muhammad) succeeded him • The Muslims began expanding their authority over Arab communities • Caliph (king) and Caliphate (kingdom)

  6. 2 SECTS EMERGE • True Believer – a person who heard, believed, and followed Muhammad • The first 3 caliphs were true believers and/or companions of Muhammad • Ali (Muhammad’s cousin) was overlooked all 3 times • The third caliph was assassinated by people who believed Ali should be caliph rather than just anyone in the Muslim community • 2 sects (small religious group) emerge: • Sunnis • Shiites

  7. SUNNIS VS. SHIITES SUNNIS • Make up 90% of Muslim population • Believe that the caliph can be any true believer in the Muslim community • Supported the first 3 caliphs SHIITES • Make up 10% of Muslim population • Believe that the caliph must be a descendent of Muhammad, not any true believer • Supported Ali CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT BETWEEN THE SUNNIS AND SHIITES – THEY WAGE JIHAD AGAINST EACH OTHER

  8. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM • Muslims spread Islam through force – theQuran or the Sword! • Islam spread to the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, and India • When and Where? • 600’s(Before the death of Muhammad): Arabian Peninsula • 600’s(After the death of Muhammad): present day Egypt, Iraq & Iran • 700’s-800’s: Spain, North Africa, & India • 800’s-1200’s: present day Turkey and Saharan Africa

  9. THE CALIPHATE • Caliph (king); Caliphate (kingdom) • After Ali was assassinated, the Umayyad Caliphate rose to power and ruled from Damascus, Syria • Umayyad Caliphate was Sunni and ruled until 750 • The Umayyad caliphs ruled over an Arab realm rather than a religious empire • The Abbasid Caliphate gained power by revolting against the Umayyads in 750 • The Abbasid Caliphate was Shiite and ruled until 1258 with Baghdad as its capital • Conversion to Islam accelerated under the Abbasid caliphs • In 1258, the Abbasid Caliphate collapsed when the Mongols invaded and sacked Baghdad

  10. GOLDEN AGE OF MUSLIM CIVILIZATION SOCIETY • Social mobility – people could improve their social ranking through religious, scholarly, and military achievements • Muslims could not be enslaved • Slaves were brought in from conquered lands

  11. GOLDEN AGE OF MUSLIM CIVILIZATION ISLAMIC WOMEN • Rural women worked in the fields and tended animals • Urban women (elite class) lived in seclusion and did not leave their homes without covering themselves • Women sometimes learned to read and write with relatives (away from unrelated men) • A man could marry as many as four wives

  12. GOLDEN AGE OF MUSLIM CIVILIZATION TRADE • Merchants were honored because Muhammad was a merchant • Participated in many trade networks across the Muslim world • Camel Caravan trade across the Sahara Desert into West Africa • Silk Road trade to and from China • Indian Ocean trade with East Africa and India

  13. GOLDEN AGE OF MUSLIM CIVILIZATION ACHIEVEMENTS • Brought Arabic numerals from India to the western world • Adapted domes and arches of Byzantine buildings (Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem) • Built domed mosques • Baghdad became the greatest Muslim center of learning • Developed algebra • Made advancements in philosophy and astronomy • Made advancements in medicine • Required doctors to pass difficult tests • Set up hospitals with emergency rooms • Studied diseases and wrote medical books • These achievements made its way into Western civilization through trading routes and the Crusades

  14. MUSLIMS IN INDIA THE DELHI SULTANATE • Arabs conquered the Indus Valley in 711, but they further advanced into India around the year 1000 • They conquered the city of Delhi and made the city its capital • The Delhi Sultanate lasted from 1206-1526 and marked the start of Muslim rule in Northern India • Sultanate: the land ruled by a sultan • Sultan: Muslim ruler

  15. MUSLIMS IN INDIA HINDUS AND MUSLIMS • The Muslim invasion brought two very different religions and cultures face to face • Hindus became second-class citizens under the Muslims • Hindus had to pay a special tax in order for them to practice their religion • Some Hindus did convert to Islam • This marked the beginning of a long history of Hindu-Muslim conflict

  16. MUSLIMS IN INDIA MUGHAL INDIA • Mughal Empire was founded by Babur in 1526 • Chief builder of the Mughal Empire was Babur’s grandson, Akbar the Great • Akbar the Great • Tolerated the religious beliefs of others and opened government jobs to Hindus of all castes • He ended the tax on non-Muslims • He used paid officials in place of hereditary office holders • Modernized the army • Encouraged international trade

  17. MUSLIMS IN INDIA MUGHAL INDIA • After the rule of Akbar the Great • Mughal Emperors ended the policy of religious toleration • Civil war broke out between Hindus and Muslims • The war drained Mughal resources • Peasant revolts • Corruption became widespread and the central government collapsed • After the collapse of the Mughal Empire, Britain gained control of India • They used an army of British troops and sepoys to drive the French from India • Forced the emperor to recognize British right to collect taxes in Bengal

  18. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE RISE TO POWER • It was clear that the caliphate was weak in the 14th century • A Turkish family, the Ottomans, revolted against the Caliphate and were able to get their independence • Eventually, the Ottoman Turks brought the Arab Empire entirely under their control • Conquered Constantinople in 1453 • The Ottomans were Sunni Muslims • Ottoman rulers took the titles of both the sultan and the caliph (example: Suleiman the Magnificent) • The Turks were despised rulers because they had one foot in Europe and one foot in the Middle East

  19. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE SOCIETY • Non-Muslims were divided into millets (religious communities) – each had its own religious leaders • Each millet had to swear its allegiance to the Sultan and pay taxes • The Ottoman millet system can be compared to British colonies and Roman provinces • DIVIDE AND RULE!!!

  20. THE SAFAVID EMPIRE • Located in present day Iran • Located between the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire • Shiite Muslims • Engaged in frequent warfare – religion always played a major role – Sunni Ottoman Empire vs. Shiite Safavid Empire


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