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Interdisciplinarity: Chemistry ↔ Biology Dr. Fida Mohammad, GIKI- Topi PowerPoint Presentation
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Interdisciplinarity: Chemistry ↔ Biology Dr. Fida Mohammad, GIKI- Topi

Interdisciplinarity: Chemistry ↔ Biology Dr. Fida Mohammad, GIKI- Topi

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Interdisciplinarity: Chemistry ↔ Biology Dr. Fida Mohammad, GIKI- Topi

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  1. Interdisciplinarity: Chemistry ↔ Biology Dr. Fida Mohammad, GIKI- Topi Learning from: ►How chemists think ►What they do & How they do it Attitude until 1828 Organic compounds made by plants or animals cannot be made by man

  2. Birth of Molecules Dalton’s theory 1808 ►Two or more than two atoms sticking together form molecules & that during chemical reactions atoms remain intact OH + HCl → H2O + Cl ☺Maxwell: Nature, Sept 1873, 13 page article ” Molecule ”

  3. Birth of Organic Chemistry: Woehler synthesis- 1828 ►He produced urea outside kidney ►He discovered Isomerism-I HCN vs HNC Isomerism ( connectivity )

  4. Van’t Hoff considers third dimension removing isomer paradox (1874 ) Two Isomers Cl Cl No Isomer

  5. Van’t Hoff & Le Bel: Tetrahedral carbon atom also explains optical activity Chirality enters chemistry

  6. Carbon atom insists on 109º angle Zigzag Molecules Puckered rings Conformations Chair or Boat form ? Can molecules bend, twist curl, fold coil, turn Molecular angle is adjusted to relieve strain

  7. Precise measurements of angles and bond lengths What if the angle in water changes to 109º ?

  8. Distribution of atoms in molecules - I

  9. Distribution of charge in molecules - II: Dispersion forces Dipole forces ►Be careful with charge distribution in CO ►Don’t underestimate dispersion forces

  10. CH3 CH3 CH3-C-CH3 CH3-C-CH3 CH3 CH3 Dispersion forces depend on shape also CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

  11. Kevlar ( Hydrogen bonding ) Fiber Axis

  12. Twisting, folding, coiling molecule

  13. Great debate on Macromolecules: formation, size, flexibility, molar mass

  14. : : Ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene ( UHMWPE ) Bullet proof Jackets Dispersion forces

  15. Alternative structure for macromolecules

  16. The restless Molecules Translation Rotation Vibration

  17. Unraveling the code of life Distance between base pairs = 340pm Rotation from base to base = 36º No. of bases per turn = 10 Length of DNA from one chromosome = 5 cm Molar mass= 1000 tons

  18. Understanding genetic make-up and Health Forecasting

  19. . Definition of chemistry: transformation of matter but how ? Cyclobutane Ethylene

  20. Femto-second chemistry ( Intermediates, transition states etc )

  21. Exothermic reaction: • where does the energy go ? • F + D2 → DF ( v ) + H + ∆H (147 kJ/mol ) • V Rel. Amount • 0 0 • 2 • 44 • 100 • 49 Studied for star war