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Introduction to the Human Body

WELCOME. Introduction to the Human Body. Anatomy & Physiology Class Mrs. Leisher. WHAT IS ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY?. Anatomy : study of the structure, shape, and locations of body parts Physiology : study of the function of body parts. Principle of Complementarity of Structure & Function.

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Introduction to the Human Body

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  1. WELCOME Introduction to the Human Body Anatomy & Physiology Class Mrs. Leisher

  2. WHAT IS ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY? • Anatomy: study of the structure, shape, and locations of body parts • Physiology: study of the function of body parts

  3. Principle of Complementarity of Structure & Function - This principle states that function reflects structure Can you think of an example?

  4. ANATOMICAL POSITION • Assumed position of body • standing face-front, feet flat on floor facing forward with palms facing forward

  5. Structural level of organization

  6. DIRECTIONAL TERMS • Superior/inferior • Anterior/posterior • Medial/lateral • Proximal/distal • Superficial/deep

  7. Systems of the Body 1. Integumentary 2. Skeletal 3. Muscular 4. Nervous 5. Endocrine 6. Cardiovascular 7. Lymphatic/immune 8. Respiratory 9. Digestive • 10. Urinary • 11. Reproductive • (Male and female)

  8. Planes: imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body • Sagittal: divides into right and left • Frontal: divides into anterior/posterior • Transverse: divides into superior/inferior

  9. Cavities: spaces that protect, separate, and support internal organs • Dorsal: • Cranial • Vertebral • Ventral • Thoracic: • Abdominopelvic: separated from thoracic by diaphragm

  10. IN CLASS ASSIGNMENT: • For each system: • Write 1-3 sentences that describe the responsibilities of that system. Then list 2-4 organs/components of that system. • Work on your sentence NOT being just copied from the book. Sufficient, but concise!!! • Illustrate (literal or symbolic)

  11. HOMEOSTASIS • Maintaining homeostasis is essential for life. • Homeostasis: keeping internal conditions relatively stable • Maintaining the volume and composition of body fluids important for homeostasis • Intracellular • Extracellular: EX: blood plasma, cerebrospinal fluid • Know examples HOW IS THIS PICTURE A VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF HOMEOSTASIS?

  12. Regulated by: • The body communicating within itself, constantly regulating the balance in the body. • the nervous (fast) or endocrine (slow) system

  13. Feedback Systems • A cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated, and so. • A disruption that changes a controlled condition (eg temp, blood glucose levels) is called a stimulus

  14. Feedback systems cont. • 3 components • Receptor: structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center. • EX: nerve endings in finger tips sense temp. change

  15. Control center: sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it receives from receptors, and generates output commands when they are needed. • EX: the brain or nucleus of cell

  16. Effector: structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response that changes the controlled condition.

  17. example body temp. drops sharply (stimulus), detected by your hypothalamus (receptor), your brain (control center) sends nerve impulses (output) to your skeletal muscles (effectors). Results in shivering to generate heat to raise your body temp.


  19. Disruption monitored by ___________ which send a message _____ disrupts homeostasis ______ _____: receives message and provides output ______ bring about a change or response that alters the controlled condition Messages sent to and from the control center are either _______ or ______ signals Flowchart of a feedback system

  20. Negative Feedback Systems • Reverses a change in a controlled condition. • EX blood pressure returning to normal after increasing.

  21. Positive Feedback Systems • Strengthens or reinforces a change in one of the body’s controlled conditions • EX. Normal childbirth

  22. Negative feedback sys. Positive feedback sys.

  23. Reverses a change In controlled condition Chemical and electrical messengers Reinforces a change In a Controlled condition Stops as controlled Condition Returns To normal Have receptors Control center effectors Shut off by outside event Negative feedback sys. Positive feedback sys. Start with stimulus End with response Reinforce events That don’t Happen Very often Regulate more common conditions

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