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Overlapping Gesture. 第二個音發音是在第一個音還沒發完 的時候 就開始，有時候又稱為 anticipatory coarticulation ( 預期協同發音 ) 通常不同發聲器官的動作只是一種移動到某個目標的情形。那個目標只是一個預計做的動作，而不一定要發出來，因為有可能還沒發完又有下一個目標音出現. Overlapping Gesture - gesture of the tongue. Overlapping Gesture - gesture of the lip.
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Overlapping Gesture 第二個音發音是在第一個音還沒發完的時候就開始，有時候又稱為anticipatory coarticulation(預期協同發音) 通常不同發聲器官的動作只是一種移動到某個目標的情形。那個目標只是一個預計做的動作，而不一定要發出來，因為有可能還沒發完又有下一個目標音出現
Overlapping Gesture - gesture of the lip When the cluster is: stopconsonant + /w/ The stop are slightly rounded Ex: twice [twaNs] dwindle [dwNnL] quick [kwNk]
Overlapping Gesture - gesture of the lip When the cluster is: stopconsonant + /r/ The stop are slightly rounded Ex: tree tee dream deem (rounded) (not rounded)
Ex: coo [ku] (round lip) clue [klu] (slightly less lip) sack Lou [sWklu] (even less round) tackle Lou [tWkLlu] (lip rounding for the [u] starts in the [k] ) /k/遇到圓唇音時自己也會變圓唇，但改變的程度則要視左右的母音而有所不同
Ex: reed initial [r] deer final [r] leaf initial [l] feel final [l] ten [tDn] button Sometimes, the differences between allophones are the result of overlapping gestures, producing what have been called intrinsicallophones; sometimes, they involve different gestures, which may be called extrinsicallophones. 但有些音的改變是因為要表達的目標不同，而不是因為協同發音所致
Ex: bib, did, don, nod Ex: pip, test, kick Ex: improve [v] add two [d] Consonants are longer when at the end of a phrase. Voiceless stops (/p, t, k/) are aspirated when in initial. Obstruents(阻塞音) - Stops & fricatives - are classified as voiced (/b, d, g, v, , z, /) in only a small part of the articulation when they are at the end of an utterance or before a voiceless sound.
Ex: this day stay Ex: spew, stew, skew Ex: cap cab back bag So-called voiced stops & affricates /b, d, g, d/ are voiceless when in initial, except when immediately preceded by a voiced sound. Voiceless stops /p, t, k/ are unaspirated after /s/ in words. Voiceless obstruents /p, t, k, t, f, , s, / are longer than the corresponding voiced obstruents /b, d, g, d, v, , z, / when at the end of the syllable.
Ex: play, twin, cue [ ] Ex: apt [pt] rubbed [rHbd] Ex: tip, pit, kick The approximants /w, r, j, l/ are at least partially voiceless when they are after initial /p, t, k, /. The gestures for consecutive stops overlap, so that stops are unexploded when they occur before another stop. Syllable final /p, t, k/ are accompanied by an overlapping glottal stop gesture.
Ex: beaten [biN] Ex: leaden, chasm ['ldN, 'kzM] /t/ is replaced by a glottal stop when it is before an alveolar nasal in the same word. Nasals are syllabic at the end of a word when after an obstruent.
Ex: 1. stops or fricatives+/l/ paddle, whistle 2. nasal+/l/ kennel, channel Ex: saber, razor, hammer, tailor The lateral /l/ is syllabic at the end of a word when immediately after a consonant. 12a) The liquids /l, r/ are syllabic at the end of a word and after a consonant.
(13) EX: painter & splinter / winter &winner (14) most people /send paper (15) most people (16) concert (n) concerted(v) Biggame / top post (17) [k] cap, kept, kit, key [g] gap, get, give, geese