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Advanced Academic Writing 3rd lecture

Advanced Academic Writing 3rd lecture

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Advanced Academic Writing 3rd lecture

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  1. Graduate school of Engineering Wide Lecture 3799-027 Advanced Academic Writing 3rd lecture 5th period 16:40-18:20, Wednesdays Eng. 2nd bldg. Room 211 KumikoMorimura, Ph. D Global Ware Project Global Center for Innovation in Engineering Education, The University of Tokyo

  2. Recap • Structure • Paragraph writing • Title • Author’s name and Affiliation • References Advanced Academic Writing 3

  3. A text is woven • Cohesion(band, unite) conjunction, rephrase • Coherence (consistency) Weave a textwith the woof and the warp Coherence (warp) Cohesion (woof) Advanced Academic Writing 3

  4. Argumentative Writing Complicated problem can not be explained in 1 paragraph Multi paragraph=Essay • Introductory paragraph • Body • Concluding paragraph Meta structure Introductory paragraph Topic sentence Supporting sentence Concluding sentence Body Topic sentence Supporting sentence Concluding sentence Concluding paragraph Topic sentence Supporting sentence Concluding sentence Advanced Academic Writing 3

  5. Title Checklist • Is the title: • informative (paper’s contents) • clear (no ambiguous words) • accurate(no mistakes) • brief (no unnecessary words) • Does it follow the proper title style? • Can it be IMPROVED any further? Advanced Academic Writing 3

  6. Title (style) • First thing the readers see • It will be used when it’s referred →important • Express the content clearly, accurately, and briefly • Within 13 words, 100 letters • No abbreviation in the title • Use lower case for prepositions or conjunctions ・ Try to avoid “The, on, study, observation, or investigation” ・Times new roman, 14, bold Advanced Academic Writing 3

  7. Typical Style Adverb noun verb Magnetically Induced Anisotropy adjective noun prep in Iron-based Superconductors Eg. Orbitally and Magnetically induced Anisotropy in Iron-based Superconductors Advanced Academic Writing 3

  8. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  9. Today’s Lecture • Abstract • Introduction • Body Tense Materials and Methods Experimental Procedures Results (Charts, Graphs, and Tables) Advanced Academic Writing 3

  10. Abstract Advanced Academic Writing 3

  11. Why you write an abstract Conference paper Journal paper Only the title and abstract are often freely accessible =cited It helps your reader see the big picture of your paper It helps your reader to quickly judge if they want to read (pay for) your paper • The program committee checks if your paper will match their scope & quality • You may be asked to present your research • With an oral presentation • With a poster presentation • The audience may read your title and abstract to decide if they want to listen to your presentation or not. • The abstract may remain in online databases PR For your paper Advanced Academic Writing 3

  12. Abstract ・Refer to all the new information in the paper ・Do not repeat exactly what is written in the title ・Include topic, experimental method, and results ・100-200 words depending on the journal ・Do not refer to the tables, figures, references ・Use past tense; “In this work, this reagent was added.” Advanced Academic Writing 3

  13. example abstract A. Shinya Yamanaka discovered more than 40 years later, in 2006, how intact mature cells in mice could be reprogrammed to become immature stem cells. Surprisingly, by introducing only a few genes, he could reprogram mature cells to become pluripotent stem cells, i. e. immature cells that are able to develop into all types of cells in the body. B. John B. Gordon discovered in 1962 that the specialization of cells is reversible. In a classic experiment, he replaced the immature cell nucleus in an egg cell of a frog with the nucleus from a mature intestinal cell. This modified egg cell developed into a normal tadpole. The DNA of the mature cell still had all the information needed to develop all cells in the frog. C. The Nobel Prize recognizes two scientists who discovered that mature, specialized cells can be reprogrammed to become immature cells capable of developing into all tissues of the body. Their findings have revolutionized our understanding of how cells and organisms develop. D. These groundbreaking discoveries have completely changed our view of the development and cellular specialization. We now understand that the mature cell does not have to be confined forever to its specialized state. Textbooks have been rewritten and new research fields have been established. By reprogramming human cells, scientists have created new opportunities to study diseases and develop methods for diagnosis and therapy. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  14. How to write an abstract Read the “Instructions for Authors” or “Author Guidelines” of the journal or conference. Make sure a broad audience can understand your abstract without having the paper. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  15. Instructions for Authors (Abstract) Format and writing style depend on the journal. (Compare these 3 examples) Do NOT use symbols, special characters, or math in the title or abstract. (Reason: titles and abstracts go into databases all over the web and most databases can only handle ASCII characters) Advanced Academic Writing 3

  16. A. Structured abstract: The abstract is very important to readers because it is only they read and it generally determines whether they decide to dig deeper. Prepare a structured abstract of no more than 250 words, with information arranged under the following subheadings [include the subheadings in your abstract] –with each subheading beginning on a new line. Objective Background Results Conclusion Application (for nontheoretical works) Construct a statement that reflects to a broad audience the practical impact of this work. This is very important to Human Factors. Source: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Advanced Academic Writing 3

  17. Preparing of an abstract General The abstract should be written concisely in normal rather than highly abbreviated English. The author should assume that the reader has some knowledge of the subject but has not read the paper. Thus, the abstract should be intelligible and complete in itself. (no numeral references); it should not cite figures, tables, or sections of the paper. The abstract should be written using the passive voice instead of first person. [The experiments were performed versus We performed the experiments] Length The abstract must appear as one paragraph. Its optimum length will vary somewhat with the nature and extent of the paper, but it must range from a minimum of 100 to a maximum of 200 words. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  18. Content The title normally is read along with the abstract and so should not be repeated or paraphrased in the first sentences of the abstract. The opening sentences should , in general, indicate the subjects dealt with in the paper (unless the title identifies them adequately) and should state the objectives of the investigation. It is also desirable to describe the treatment by one or more such terms as brief, exhaustive, theoretical experimental, and so forth. The body of the abstract should indicate newly observed facts and the conclusions of the experiment or argument discussed in the paper. It should contain new numerical data presented in the paper if space permits; otherwise, attention should be drawn to the nature of such data. In the case of experimental results, the abstract should indicate the methods used in obtaining them; for new methods the basic principle, range of operation, and degree of accuracy should be given. Adapted from: AIAA: American Institute of Astronauts and Astronautics. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  19. C. Articles have a summary, separate from themain text, of up to 150 words, which does not have references, and does not contain numbers, abbreviations, acronyms or measurements unless essential. It is aimed at readers outside the discipline. This summary contains a paragraph (2-3 sentences) of basic-level introduction to the field; a brief account of the background and rationale of the work; a statement of the main conclusions (introduced by the phrase ‘Here we show’ or its equivalent ); and finally 2-3 sentences putting the main findings into general context so it is clear how the results described in the paper have moved the field forwards. Nature journals prefer authors to write in the active voice (“we performed the experiment…”) as experience has shown that readers find concepts and results to be conveyed more clearly if written directly. We have also found that use of several adjectives to qualify one noun in highly technical language can be confusing to readers. We encourage authors to ‘unpackage’ concepts and to present their findings and conclusions in simply constructed sentences. Sources: Nature publishing group Advanced Academic Writing 3

  20. Exercise Choose abstract style A, B, or C Fill in the table Time: ca. 20-25 minutes

  21. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  22. Introduction Advanced Academic Writing 3

  23. Introduction Objective & background 20% Earlier studies, review paper 50% What’s lacking, what’s needed more 20% Roadmap, introduction of your study 10% Do not repeat what is written in the abstract Advanced Academic Writing 3

  24. Background It has been the subject of consideration. • Earlier studies As X (2005) has pointed out ……. • What’s lacking The indication of ….. is challenging because …… • Road map We have begun our own study of …… Advanced Academic Writing 3

  25. The purpose of this research is ____________... • ___________of the new technique and the results using this method are ……… • ____________ a new model to realize the ideal system was the aim of this study. • development • developing • to develop Advanced Academic Writing 3

  26. Body Advanced Academic Writing 3

  27. Body People should understand everything about your experiment by reading the paper. -The result occurred on this condition. -Degree of accuracy of data and errors. -Both tables and graphs cannot be used on the same data. Which is more appropriate? Advanced Academic Writing 3

  28. Tense • In this study (work, study, research), we used  Past tense • In this paper (paper, article, report), … is extended • Present tense Our study examined…. We tried to determine…. This paper investigates … This article describes ……. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  29. Materials and Methods • Name all the materials used in the experiment • Follow the procedure and write it • Write it so that anybody can reproduce the result • Note all the chemicals (medicine) or device (apparatus) you used in the experiment • No brand name is needed • Write the details briefly Advanced Academic Writing 3

  30. Experimental Procedures • preparation X solutions were prepared by diluting a 1000 mg/L standard stock solution (MEX Chemicals GmbH, Germany) with Beltam deionized water (Beltam Co., Ltd., USA). • measure Eq. (1) is used for rigorous computation of the Z interaction between X and Y. • action Warm rolling was performed at 500 ℃. • present The equations present the calculations. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  31. Results Write the results that were drawn from the experiment clearly and briefly to develop the theory or discussion. • Write only typical results • Do not write “discussion” here • Avoid vague expression, but show data • Use figures, tables, and pictures and simply develop your theory • Use past tense. The results showed that … Advanced Academic Writing 3

  32. Results vs. Discussion Keeping hard facts and personal interpretations separated is very important in academia. Results: (What you did and)what the results were Discussion: What the results mean Advanced Academic Writing 3

  33. Charts Pie chart Bar graph Figure 2. Bar graphs are used to show discrete data. Fig. 1. A pie chart looks like a pie. The pie chart has 3 "sectors" ("slices" or "shares"). The purple sector makes up 50% of the total. Flow chart Scatter plot Fig 3 A scatter plot shows a series of measurement points. It is similar to a line graph, but in a scatter plot there can be multiple y values for one x value. Figure 4 Flowcharts are often used to explain an algorithm or a process, or to visualize a flow of data or materials in a schematic way. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  34. More graphs & tables • Advanced Academic Writing 3

  35. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  36. In your text, • Figure 1 shows the test results. During the manufacturing of Z, the process is done at the end of the welding. The thickness of the plate was 3 mm. When the aluminum content was less than 0.6 mass%, no influence was observed on the surface. • As shown in Fig. 2, the temperature rapidly rises. The results are shown in Table 1. Text text. Text texttexttext As seen in Fig. 1, …. Text text texttext Text texttexttext Table 1 Caption comes here. Fig. 1 Caption comes here. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  37. Caption (nature) Advanced Academic Writing 3

  38. caption • Figure 1 |Device layout. a. b. Photograph (a) and schematic cross section (b) of a typical Au-La AIO-SrTiO tunnel device. The broad gold ring (inner diameter, 160 um) lies on top of the LaAIO layer, which serves as a tunnel barrier between the 2DEL and the Au. The outer ring and the center contact of the device are Au-covered Ti contacts to the 2DEL. (c) Cross-sectional high angle annular dark-field STEM image of a AU-LaAIO-SrTIO tunnel junction. The image is taken along the 110 zone axis of the pervoskite unit cells. A.u, arbitrary units. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  39. Discussion

  40. Discussion • Develop your view from the results in an accurate logic • Assess your result in relation to the other’s results • Find the problem of your study • Mention how your study will be proceeded in the future • Has to have a logical assertion • Explain the significance of this new invention and how it contributes to the existing knowledge • Be critical on your study Advanced Academic Writing 3

  41. Describe In the motorcycle industry, it is an important process used to join parts. • Compare In comparison with …. • Evaluate In our study , … was observed… • Criticize …. remains questionable …… • Conclude It was concluded that …… Describe Compare Conclude Evaluate Criticize Advanced Academic Writing 3

  42. Conclusion • Write the most important result • Itemize the results • Rephrase the hypothesis • Mention what you should do next Advanced Academic Writing 3

  43. Conclude, concludes, concluded, conclusion, conclusions • In ___________, we have described ……. • It can be ____________ in section 3 that …. • The following __________ could be drawn …. • Section 5 ___________ that……. • We must ___________ that ……. • The authors __________ that …… Which conjugated form is appropriate? Advanced Academic Writing 3

  44. Example Paper • Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2014 • Efficient Blue Light- Emitting Diodes Leading to Bright and Energy-Saving White Light Sources Advanced Academic Writing 3

  45. Cover letter Use the letter head 1 1 in Semi block Your address Their Address Name & Signature 2 Dear Editor: The entire paper is not being submitted to any other journals. I would like to submit the manuscript for possible publication in Journal of ………… On behalf of my coauthors, I am sending the enclosed manuscript entitled …… Sincerely yours, Sincerely yours, 3 3 in Semi block “Roll casting of alloys with Fe as an impurity” Advanced Academic Writing 3

  46. First Assignment Study any one of the components of a paper • Good example, bad example and why • names & affiliation • title • abstract • introduction • graphs & tables • acknowledgment • references 1. Pick up some important paper in your field. 2. Study the item you chose. 3. Find good examples & bad examples and tell me why you thought so. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  47. First assignment • Send an A4 paper to by Oct. 20, 23:59 • Bring that paper to class on Oct. 22nd as well. • Have a discussion with friends who studied the same item. • Decide how you present what you learned. • Present it on Nov. 5that the class. • Presentation should be 10 minute long. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  48. On October 22nd • Have a discussion with friends who studied the same item. • Decide how you present what you learned. • Present it on Nov. 5th at the class. • Presentation should be no longer than 10 minutes. Advanced Academic Writing 3

  49. Assignment • October 29th: Proficiency test bring your pencil and eraser • Everybody should be present • assignment -Make a good presentation poster to show what you have studied in a group -Practice and present it on November 5th Advanced Academic Writing 3

  50. To register in AAW, send an email today to • • Department/major/Lab. • Year (ex. M1, D2) • Student ID • Name, 漢字氏名、Roma-ji表記氏名 • Email address (PC) • Cell phone number • Do you want to take presentation class(AAP)? Advanced Academic Writing