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  1. Nutrition Chapter 5 Lesson 1

  2. What is Nutrition? • Nutrition- The process by which the body takes in and uses food. • Calories- Units of heat that measure the energy used by the body and the energy that food supply to the body. • Nutrients- Substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy

  3. Metabolism, What is it and What does it do? • Metabolism converts the fuel in the food we eat into the energy needed to power everything we do. • From moving to thinking to growing.

  4. Gaining and Losing Weight • Just as a car stores gas in the gas tank until it is needed to fuel the engine, the body stores calories - primarily as fat. If you overfill a car's gas tank, it spills over onto the pavement. Likewise, if a person eats too many calories, they "spill over" in the form of excess fat on the body.

  5. Gaining and Losing Weight • The number of calories a person burns in a day is affected by 1) How much that person exercises, 2) The amount of fat and muscle in his or her body, and 3) The person's Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR).

  6. Basal Metabolic Rate • Basal Metabolic Rate, or BMR, is a measure of the rate at which a person's body "burns" energy, in the form of calories, while at rest. • BMR is the minimal amount of calories the body needs to survive. • The BMR can play a role in a person's tendency to gain weight.

  7. What factors influence a person’s BMR? • To a certain extent, a person's basal metabolic rate is inherited • Exercising more will not only cause a person to burn more calories directly from the extra activity itself, but becoming more physically fit will increase BMR as well. • People with more muscle and less fat generally have higher BMRs.

  8. Body Mass Index Chart

  9. Show Metabolism video •

  10. Nutrition:Carbohydrates Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Pg. 114-118

  11. Nutrients • Objective 1: Describe the functions of the simple and complex carbohydrates • Objective 2: Describe the relationship between glucose and glycogen • Objective 3: Identify some of the benefits of fiber

  12. What is a Carbohydrate? • Carbohydrates (Carbs)- The starches and sugars found in foods. • Made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen • The body’s preferred source of energy • Carbs provide, 4 calories per 1 gram

  13. Carbohydrates • Your body uses the energy from the carbs everyday, for every task. • Depending on their chemical make-up there are 2 types; • Simple • Complex • 55-60% of your daily calories should come from complex carbs.

  14. Simple Carbohydrates • What are simple carbohydrates? • Also know as EMPTY CALORIES • Sugars; fructose and lactose • Found primarily in fruit and milk • Most familiar; Sucrose • Found naturally; plants • Refined to make table sugar • Sucrose is also added to manufactured foods •

  15. Simple Carbohydrates

  16. Videos • Splenda • •

  17. Corn, Bad for you? How? • Article • Read quietly to yourself… • The vast majority of the high fructose corn syrup containing 55% fructose is used to sweeten carbonated soft drinks and other flavored beverages. Minor amounts are used in frozen dairy products. Essentially all foods listing “high fructose corn syrup” as an ingredient contain the syrup with 42% fructose. The 95% fructose corn syrup is becoming more common in beverages, canned fruits, confectionery products and dessert syrups. • “Now, a quarter of the 45,000 items in the average supermarket contain processed corn, often in the form of high-fructose corn syrup.” • That’s…11,250 products

  18. Complex Carbohydrates • What are complex carbohydrates? • Starches • Found primarily in; whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes and tubers (root veggies) • Did you know? • Your body must break down complex carbs to simple carbs before it can use them for energy

  19. Complex Carbohydrates

  20. The Role Of Carbohydrates • Your body converts all carbs to Glucose • A simple sugar that’s the main source of energy for our bodies • The glucose that is not used is stored in the liver and muscles as a starch-like substance called; glycogen. • When your body needs more energy the glycogen is converted back to glucose. • Excess carbs taken in and not used are converted to body fat

  21. Fiber, What is it? What does it do? • Is an indigestible complex carbohydrate that is found in tough, stringy parts of vegetables, fruits and whole grains. • Fiber helps move waste through the digestive system and helps prevent against constipation. • Why fiber reduces the risk of early death is unclear. Perhaps it's because fiber lowers levels of "bad" LDL cholesterol, improves blood glucose levels, reduces inflammation, and binds to potential cancer-causing agents, helping to flush them out of the body, says lead author Yikyung Park, a staff scientist at the National Cancer Institute. (article from us

  22. Fiber • Did you know? • That if you eat enough fiber throughout your life, it can help prevent against heart disease! • It can also help control diabetes by reducing your blood glucose levels • Eat between 20-35 grams of fiber a day! • Sources • Fruit • Vegetables w/edible skins • Whole grains • Bran, cereal, oatmeal, brown rice

  23. How to get the Proper amount of Fiber… • Start your day with a whole grain breakfast cereal; Oatmeal! • Choose whole fruit instead of fruit juice • Eat 5 servings of fruit and vegetables a day! • Select high-fiber snacks • Popcorn (no butter), raw veggies, nuts, apples, pears, peaches, plums (edible skin)

  24. Nutrition:Protein Chapter 5 Lesson 3

  25. Analyzing Protein • Objective 1: Identify the role of protein in your body • Objective 2: Be able to identify where you could obtain the 9 essential amino acids • Objective 3: Give an example of how to make incomplete proteins complete by combining foods

  26. Review from Lesson 2 • What are simple carbohydrates? • Sugars; glucose, fructose, lactose • Examples? • Fruits, Milk, Cake, Candy, Pop • What are complex carbohydrates? • Starches • Examples? • Whole grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, tubers • The body must break down__________ carbohydrates into ___________carbohydrates before it can use them for energy. • Complex/simple

  27. Protein, What is it? How does it work? • Protein • Nutrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues • Made up of chains called, Amino Acids • Your body can manufacture all but 9 of the 20 different amino acids that make up proteins. • These 9 amino acids are known as Essential Amino Acids • So where do we get them?

  28. Complete Proteins • Complete Proteins • Contain adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids. • Found in animal products • Fish • Meat • Poultry • Eggs • Dairy Products; milk, cheese, yogurt

  29. Videos “Milk the Deadly Poison” “Pink Slime” Cows Fed Candy Superbug found in Chicken

  30. Vegetarians • Do not eat meat • There is a difference between vegetarians and vegans. What is it? • May have a challenge getting protein, so how do they? • Eggs, Milk, Cheese, Yogurt • Beans, legumes, grains, nuts, seeds • Combining foods carefully is the key • Ex: Legumes + Grains • Ex: Nuts + Seeds

  31. Incomplete Proteins • Incomplete Proteins • Lack one or more of the essential amino acids • Sources • Beans, peas, nuts, and whole grains • If you were to combine peanut butter and bread, that would give you a complete protein • You don’t have to combine the incomplete proteins in one meal, you just need to eat them over the course of the day!

  32. Role of Proteins • Proteins have many functions including; • During major growth periods such as; adolescence, puberty, & pregnancy, the body builds new cells and tissues from the amino acids in proteins. • Throughout your life your body replaces damaged or worn-out cells by making new ones from protein.

  33. Role of Proteins • Your body also produces enzymes, hormones and antibodies from proteins. • Proteins help supply your body with energy, even though they are not the main source. • Proteins, like carbs, provide 4 calories per every 1 gram. • Excess protein is converted to body fat

  34. Nutrition:Fats/Vitamins/Minerals Chapter 5 Lesson 4

  35. Fats/Vitamins/Minerals • Objective 1: Compare and contrast saturated, unsaturated and trans fatty acids • Objective 2: Understand cholesterol and the difference between HDL and LDL • Objective 3: Identify the two types of vitamins and their benefits • Objectives 4: Identify and explain the benefits of minerals

  36. Fats • Fats are a type of lipid • Lipid- A fatty substance that does not dissolve in water • Fats provide more than TWICE the energy of carbs or proteins • 9 calories = 1 gram

  37. Fats • The building blocks of fats are called fatty acids • Fatty acids that your body needs but cannot produce are called essential fatty acids • Classified as 2 types depending on their chemical composition • Saturated • Unsaturated • Most fats are a mixture of both types

  38. Saturated Fatty Acids • Saturated fatty acids hold all the hydrogen atoms they can, meaning they are solid at room temperature • Examples: Animal fats/tropical oils • Palm oil, Coconut oil • Beef, pork, egg yolks, and dairy foods are higher in saturated fat than chicken and fish. • High intake of saturated fat = increased risk of heart disease

  39. Unsaturated Fatty Acids • Unsaturated fatty acids have 1 unsaturated bond, meaning they have room to add hydrogen. • Examples: Vegetable fats • Olive, canola, soybean, corn and cottonseed oils • Typically liquids (oils) at room temperature • Increase in unsaturated fatty acids = lower risk of heart disease

  40. 2 Types of Unsaturated Fat • Monounsaturated • Have only one unsaturated bond • Are liquid at room temperature • Solidify when refrigerated • Examples • Olive Oil • Canola Oil • Polyunsaturated • Have more than one unsaturated bond • Liquid at room temp and in the refrigerator • Examples • Safflower Oil • Corn Oil

  41. Trans-Fats/ Hydrogenated Oils • Trans fatty Acids • Trans fats (or trans fatty acids) are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid.  Another name for trans fats is “partially hydrogenated oils."  • Trans fats give foods a desirable taste and texture.  • Inexpensive to produce and lasts a long time • Examples: • Fried Foods (Fries, Doughnuts, Chicken) • Baked Goods (Pie crust, cookies, crackers, margarine)

  42. Cholesterol • Cholesterol • A waxy lipid-like substance that circulates in blood. • Cannot dissolve in your blood, carried by lipoproteins • 2 major types • LDL- Low Density “bad” • HDL- High Density  “good” • A high intake saturated fat can lead to an increase in cholesterol

  43. Video • Trans-Fats • “ How Trans-Fats have became our Enemy” •

  44. Role of Fats • Fats are essential to transport vitamins, A,D,E, and K in your blood. • They serve as sources of linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that is needed for growth and healthy skin. • Fats add texture and flavor to foods • Help satisfy hunger longer than carbs and proteins • No more than 20-30% of your daily caloric intake

  45. Vitamins • Vitamins • Are compounds that help regulate many vital body processes including; • Digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients. • 2 types: Water or Fat soluble • Water- Dissolve in water, and pass easily into the blood during digestion. (figure 5.1) • Ex: Vitamins C, B1, B2, Niacin, B6, B12, Folic Acid • Fat- Absorbed, stored and transported in fat (Fig 5. 2) • Ex: Vitamins A, D, E, and K

  46. Minerals/Water • Minerals • Substances that the body cannot manufacture but are needed to form healthy bones and teeth. • Ex: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Iron • Water • Vital to our everyday body function • Lubricates your joins and mucous membranes • Drink 8 cups a day • Some beverages (caffeine, juice) cause us to lose some of the water through increased urination. • Some fruits and vegetables contain water

  47. Radiating Lettuce and Spinach • •

  48. Continued… • Arsenic in rice • • BPA in canned goods •!/news/health/Obesity---BPA/170329476

  49. Interactive Study Guide •