4th African Symposium on Statistical Development 09-13 Feb. 2009, Luanda, Angola 2008 Population Census of Cambodia By Mrs. Hang Lina DDG-NIS, MOP
Land area 181,035 square Km • Population 13.4 million • Growth rate 1.54 • Density 75 • Sex Ratio 94,2 • Life expectancy F= 67, M=63 • GDP per capita $ 594 (2007) • GDP growth 10.2 %
Content • Background • Objectives • Census process • Pre-census activities • Census organization and administration • Advocacy and public information campaign • Census methodology, questionnaires and manuals • Recruitment and training of personnel • The enumeration phase • Post Enumeration Survey • First Census outcome • Coding and Issues • Data & ICT in Population Census • Data Processing and Tabulation • Lessons learned and constraints • Planed Reporting and Dissemination
Background • Pop. Censuses and surveys in Cambodia: Pop. Count 1921, DS 1946, DS 1958, DS 1959, First Pop. Census 1962, Pop. Count 1980, DS 1996, Second Pop. Census 1998, CIPS 2004 • There was a census gap of 36 years between 1962 and 1998. • The majority of the 1998 General Population Census was supported by UNFPA
Objectives • Provide basic demographic information such as age, sex, marital status, and key information on household economy, employment, education and health. • Provide updated and comparative population and development indicators with reference to the 1998 census. • Provide trends and patterns in fertility, mortality, migration and other demographic and socio-economic variables. • Provide a sampling frame, from which all other surveys can benefit and extrapolate analysis. • Establish a comprehensive population database. • To create awareness between the public at large and senior officials about the importance of high quality data for development planning.
Pre-census activities • Mapping for the census: • 30 NIS staff have been trained • Base on available maps from1998, and additional some satellite commune maps from JICA. • 30 NIS staff were visiting all over the country • Updated the maps by 28,258 handwritten Enumeration Areas maps (small areas than villages)
Pre-census activities (cont.) • One EA = 120 HHs or less • EA is a part of village or a full village • GPS has been used for pointing the village chief areas. • In 1998 population census, maps were sketched drawing by hand only. • In 2008 population census, maps have been developed with GIS technologies and digital with villages boundaries in the computer.
Census organization and administration • Prepare Calendar of Census activities • Issuance of Sub-Decree on organization of 2008 population census • Formation of National Census Committee (NCC), Census Technical Committee, Census Publicity Committee, Census procurement Committee, and Provincial Census Committee. The committees met on a regularly basic to discuss and agree on key issues in relation to census preparation and implementation.
Census organization and administration (Cont.) • 120 Regional Census Officers and assistant ( 5 per province). • 72 provincial census officers (3 per prov.) • 370 district census officers • 1,621 commune census officers • 14,088 village census officers • 28,258 enumerators • 7,064 supervisors • 500 translators
Advocacy and public information campaign • Commence in June 2007 by newspaper advertisements, sensitization of community leaders and others through meetings, symposia and workshop. • Census publicity materials: • Two TV/ Radio spots • 40,000 T-shirts, caps, and bags • 20,000 census posters • 44,000 census leaflets • 2,200 street banners
Census methodology, questionnaires and manuals • The de facto method was adopted for the census enumeration. The reference time was the census night (March 3, 2008). • All census questionnaires and manuals were finalized based on user requirements, lessons learned and international/UN guidelines. • The census manuals included enumerator manual, supervisor manual, training guide, and manual of duties of field census officers.
Recruitment and training of personnel • The appointments of enumerators and supervisors were made by the Provincial Directors in consultation with the Planning and Monitoring Division of the census office at NIS to prepare the criteria recruitment. • The majority of supervisors and enumerators are primary teachers at the local areas. • As the people may not understand Khmer in some places, the translators were appointed.
Training of personnel • There were four level of training: • Sensitization of senior MoP officials on key census concepts and questionnaire content; • National level training of NIS senior Officers/Provincial Census Officers and deputies, Regional Officers, Assistant Regional Officers, and Trainers with assistance from Census Advisers; • Provincial training of selected Supervisors and trainers (TOT) • District level training of Supervisors, Enumerators, District and Commune Officers.
The Enumeration Phase • Mapping and house listing 29 Feb.-2 Mar.2008 • Enumeration homeless pop. Midnight 3 Mar.08 • Census Enumeration 03-13 Mar. 2008 • Receive completed forms 16-20 Mar. 2008 • Check and verify the completed forms with the frame and stick the Label 16 Mar.-16 Apr.2008
Post-Enumeration Survey • The Post Enumeration Survey (PES) was conducted immediately after the census to evaluate the census result. • It was conducted in 100 selected EAs. • The main objective of the PES is to estimate the coverage and contents errors in the census
Post-Enumeration Survey (cont.) • The PES was implemented in three distinct stages of operation: • Listing and enumeration of persons in all household in the selected EA. • Desk matching of particulars collected during listing with those contained in the corresponding census schedule. • Field reconciliation of particulars of individual not matched.
First Census outcome • Preliminary Report released in 3 Sept. 2008 • Draft report on Post Enumeration Survey, 09 December, 2008
Coding and Issue • Industry coding uses UN’s ISIC Rev. 4 • Occupation coding uses UN’s ISCO-08 • Issue on comparability to previous census (1998) result. To establish conversion table. Though, there are 1 Many and 1 0 relationship • Other coding such as education, minority, mortality reason might not be completely comparable across countries
Data & ICT in Population Census 2008 • Traditional Questionnaire and traditional keyboard key-in data capture were selected for population census data capturing • 100 PCs were planned and 140 PCs are being used to capture data of the population more that 13 million people in 7 months (Aug. 2008 – Feb. 2009) • CSPro is used for data entry, and cleaning. IMPS is used for tabulation • All data processing activities are being implemented in-office, no outsourcing.
Lesson Learnt • Record and keystroke tracking is important for planning and budgeting • Simple barcode scanning in-house developed application and simple barcode scanning tool are used to keep track of the data processing progress • Productivity-based payment and proper monitoring are key to the good progress of data capturing
Data Processing and Tabulation(1) • PC-based keying processing system was adopted. • Manual coding is selected • Data entry program developed using CSPro with real time error control. • Verification will be required, and gradually reduced based on accuracy of keyer • Data editing and imputation will also be done using CSPro
Data Processing and Tabulation (2) • 70 priority tables are defined using all sections and variables of the census. Other tables are defined as extended tables. CSPro also will be use to generate tables, although we are currently facing minor difficulty with the tabulation module. • Data store is proposed to be in text file of CSPro and SQL Server for analysis and dissemination
Lessons learned • Local primary school teachers served as enumerators and supervisors. • District and commune official assisted PCO in census administrative tasks and supervision. • The census advocacy broadcast by TV and Radio. • The Prime Minister message released during the enumeration operation.
Lessons learned (cont.) • Training was arranged at three levels: • National level (120 ROs/AROs, and PCOs) • Provincial level (500 field trainers) • Selected training center in districts(28054Enu. And 7014 Sup.). • The field supervision made by the team of Gov’t senior officials, Ministry of Planning, UNFPA, JICA, German colleagues and census consultants and national staff as well as reports from field supervisory staff indicated that the census coverage and quality was generally very good.
Constraints • Low allocation of funds in the government budget. • Transport to remote and difficult areas. • Printing of large volume of census schedules and distributing them to field staff on time is very crucial in the census operation. This can be ensure only if planned properly well in advance.
Constraints (cont.) • There were some problems in the census operation like household increased. In some places the household increase to 3 or 4 time, some places had been ob-missed during mapping. So, difficult to print more and send more form to every places.
Constraints (cont.) • National capacity building is achieved notably in the areas of questionnaire design, logistics arrangement, data collection, training of field staff, editing and coding of census schedules, data entry and dissemination of results. In the more technical areas like census analysis and computer programming, however, capacity building is limited.
Planned Reporting • Release of Census results and general census report – third quarter, 2009 • Printing census results and analysis reports –Sept 2009 • Dissemination seminar for Government planners, stakeholders, data users - Sept. 2009
Dissemination (1) • Hard Copy: • Final Census Report • Census Atlas • Pamphlet • Specialized sector reports - fertility, mortality, migration, gender, labor and employment, literacy and education, • Statistical maps
Dissemination (2) • Electronic Media (Website and CD/DVD): • Tables and Table retrieval system • Micro-data retrieval system • Statistical maps • CamInfo/Superstar(CamInfo using Census Data, and potential use of SuperStar online and offline) • In combination with household survey data, it will be able to produce also poverty mapping.
Dissemination (3) • Workshop • National level • Provincial level • District level
Census funding • Original budget is US$ 5,956,480 • UNFPA: US$ 1,464,711 • German: US$ 1,549,000 • JICA: US$ 568,230 • JCPF: US$ 1,686,656 (1,968,212 including establishment listing and furniture of building ) • Royal Government (including cars): US$ 746,758 • Govt. of Japan provided one new NIS building (US$ 946,433). It was inaugurated by Deputy Prime Minister and Vice Minister of Japan, in January, 2008.