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Motor Control Theory

Motor Control Theory

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Motor Control Theory

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  1. Motor Control Theory Dynamic & Ecological Approaches (Large parts adapted from Wallace, 1993)

  2. Asking the right question/questions • How do we move the way we do? • Seeks one solution • A causal influence • Tends to emphasize neural solutions • Tends to lead to “hypothetical constructs” to achieve solutions where neural solutions are not known • Tends to shape one’s thinking of control as a hierarchy

  3. Asking the right question/questions • Why do we move the way we do? • A different focus • Tends to make us look at all possible influences on the shape of movement • Does not seek one solution, but accepts many simultaneously • Tends to shape one’s thinking of control as a heterarchy • This is the way we’ll be approaching the problem

  4. A heterarchical theory of control • Or theories... • Complex systems theory • Dynamic pattern perspective & synergetics • Ecological psychology • All have in common the tendency to ask why rather than how • The study of relationships among things, rather than the things themselves • Leads to the study of...

  5. A heterarchical theory of control • Constraints... • Things which limit our range of movements – thus “shaping” them • ...and affordances • Things which permit (or even suggest) certain methods of movement or interaction with an object

  6. Individual Capabilities Environmental Constraints Task Demands A heterarchical theory of control From Newell (1986) Flexibility Cognition Strength/power Motor abilities Cardiovascular Sensory loss Speed/accuracy requirements Surface type moving seated Lighting standing Visual flow Environmental stability Number of tasks 3 categories of constraint (+ examples)

  7. A heterarchical theory of control From Schmidt & Fitzpatrick (1993) Coordination dynamics Dynamics of CNS(neural level) Dynamics of action system (effector level) Dynamics of environment (environmental level) Connectionism Action system theory Laws of perceiving and acting (ecological psychology) Processes in coordination dynamics

  8. An example (physical world) • Systems far from equilibrium • There are no instructions determining the pattern of behavior – just elements of the system interacting • But this isn’t very complex Equilibrium Far from equilibrium Punch hole in container Closed system Open system Listen to this first… …then this…

  9. A more complex example • The Benard instability (Prigogine & Stengers, 1984) • Again, the system self-organizes to these patterns • Heat is a controlparameter (this forces the system to change its organization) • (hexagon: from temp gradient + descent of cool molecules via gravity) More heat heat A pan of about 1cm depth of oil hexagonal turbulence random

  10. A more complex example • The Benard instability (Prigogine & Stengers, 1984) • Note that each pattern does change, but it resists change also – a property known as stability • Stability and loss of stability are central to dynamic pattern theory More heat heat A pan of about 1cm depth of oil hexagonal turbulent random

  11. Pause, consider, then move on… • Getting too big – have to break down into multiple slide sets