Word bank-signaling molecule-cell receptor-signal transduction pathway -nuclear signaling-cascade-phosphorylation-ATP-protein-response-nucleus-mRNA -second messenger
Animation • http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp15/15020.html • 1) What is flight or fight? • 2) What is glycogen?
12 days until the final How to use this review: 1) Study notes 2) Do questions without notes 3) For any questions you are stuck on you can look at your notes or phone a friend 4) Use the AP flashcards 5) Make a study group 6) Ask Morris LOTS of questions 7) Know what you know and what you don’t know before the test
THE CELL CYCLE: Chapter 12 Without counting the G 0 phase, a cell cycle takes 12-24 hours for most mammalian cells, and only 20-30 minutes for E. coli cells
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_the_cell_cycle_works.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_the_cell_cycle_works.html • Take notes on events of each part of the cell cycle • Interphase (G1, S, G2) + PMATC
Mitosis in the Whitefish blastula Animal mitosis movie
Mitosis in Action • Spindle=_________ • Spindle=_________ • Spindle=_________ • Spindle=_________ • Nucleus=_________ • Cell Membrane=______ • Chromosome=______ • Chromosome=______
Draw the 9 steps of cell cycle • G1 • S • G2 • Prophase • Prometaphase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase • Cytokinesis
Turn to Lab FRQ packet and start question on page 13-Animal behaviorLook at data tablea) summarize pattern(2 points) - Identify three physiological or environmental reason that cause this (3 points) • Take out lab report turn in ONLY if you can answer “Yes” to all questions/statements below 1) My discussion is half a page 2) My discussion explain why and not just what happened 3) I used 5 or more voc words
I can… • Write about the role of PROTEINS in the cell cycle
THE MITOTIC CELL CYCLE The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle Cell Cycle flash animation
LE 12-5 INTERPHASE S (DNA synthesis) G1 Mitosis Cytokinesis G2 MITOTIC (M) PHASE
THE MITOTIC CELL CYCLE The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle What are the key parts of each phase? Mitosis animation
The stages of mitotic cell division in an animal cell The light micrographs show dividing lung cells from a newt, which has 22 chromosomes in its somatic cells. The chromosomes appear blue and the microtubules green. (Know the characteristics of the phases)
Review the details of each mitotic phase animal cells (Know the characteristics of the phases) Mitosis flash animation (Purves)
THE KEY ROLES OF CELL DIVISION • Cell division functions in reproduction, growth, and repair
Cell division distributes identical sets of chromosomes to daughter cells Eukaryotic chromosomes. A tangle of chromosomes (stained orange) is visible within the nucleus of this kangaroo rat epithelial cell.
Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus • Somatic (nonreproductive) cells have two sets of chromosomes • Gametes (reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells • Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of chromatin, a complex of DNA and protein that condenses during cell division
Our DNA is 6 feet long, how does it fit into a nucleus? • Note: 10,000 nuclei fit on the tip of your pencil http://dnalc.org/view/15491-DNA-packaging-3D-animation-with-narration.html
Chromosome duplication and distribution during mitosis. Eukaryotic duplicates each of its multiple chromosomes before it divides. A duplicated chromosome consists of two sister chromatids, which narrow at their centromeres.
The mitotic spindle distributes chromosomes to daughter cells The assembly of spindle microtubules starts in the centrosome, known as a microtubule-organizing center. During interphase, the single centrosome replicates to form two centrosomes. During prophase they form spindle fibers and migrate to the poles.
Role of cytoskeleton • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5rqbmLiSkpk&feature=related • http://bio.rutgers.edu/~gb101/lab2_mitosis/section2_frames.html
The mitotic spindle at metaphase • Each of the two joined chromatids of a chromosome has a kinetochore. • Anaphase: proteins holding together the sister chromatids of each chromosome are inactivated and they are now full chromosomes.
Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that kinetochores use motor proteins that "walk" a chromosome along the attached microtubules toward the nearest pole. • Meanwhile, the microtubules shorten by depolymerizing at their kinetochore ends • In a dividing animal cell,non kinetochore microtubules are responsible for elongating the whole cell during anaphase
Cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm How does it differ in animal and plant cells?
In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs by cleavage • The cleavage furrow, which begins as a shallow groove in the cell surface. • On the cytoplasmic side, a contractile ring of actin microfilaments and molecules of the protein myosin • The contraction of the dividing cell’s ring of microfilaments is like the pulling of drawstrings Cytokinesis animation
Cytokinesis in plant cells has no cleavage furrow During telophase, vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus move along microtubules to the middle of the cell, where they fuse, producing a cell plate.
Mitosis in a plant cell These light micrographs show mitosis in cells of an onion root. How does this differ from animal cell mitosis?
Mitosis in eukaryotes may have evolved from binary fission in bacteria Mitosis video (long)
A hypothesis for the evolution of mitosis Researchers of eukaryotic cell division have observed in modern organisms what they believe are mechanisms of division intermediate between the binary fission of bacteria and mitosis as it occurs in most eukaryotes.
Cancer This man has cancer of the mouth.
Regulation of the Cell cycle The timing and rate of cell division in different parts of a plant or animal are crucial to normal growth, development, and maintenance. Do all cells have the same cell cycle? Why is regulation of the cell cycle of interest to research? Cancer Growth Flash animation
What is Cancer? • Cancer means uncontrolled cell growth • The body needs to keep cell growth = cell death • Cell cycle checkpoints kill mutated or old cells
The cell cycle has traffic lights that serve as checkpoints G1 Phase S Phase Mitosis Cytokinesis G2 Phase Does the body need more cells? Is the cell ready for mitosis?
Cancer is caused when the checkpoints are broken and the cell cycle keeps going without stopping G1 Phase S Phase Mitosis Cytokinesis G2 Phase
What are the types of cancer? *Any part of the body can be cancerous • Skin cancer • Lung cancer • Breast cancer • Testicular cancer • Colon cancer • Liver cancer • Brain cancer Lung Cancer Brain Cancer
How do you get cancer? How can you get cancer? • Getting hit in the breast? NO • Having unprotected sex? NO • Smoking? YES • Being in the sun too long? YES