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Chapter 15 Natural Selection

Chapter 15 Natural Selection

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Chapter 15 Natural Selection

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  1. Chapter 15 Natural Selection

  2. IN Pg. 50 • Who was Charles Darwin?

  3. Why do atoms bond to one another? a. to gain an octet of electrons b. to become happy atoms c. to gain kinetic energy d. to become lower in potential energy Do it now Pg. 50

  4. Do it now Pg. 50 • Why do atoms bond to one another? a. to gain an octet of electrons. This only happens in covalent bonding b. to become happy atoms. It has not been proven that atoms have emotions c. to gain kinetic energy. A bond is formed because of a very large decrease in the kinetic energy due to the molecular orbital having a significantly decreased gradient in the bond region. d. to become lower in potential energy. By decreasing its potential energy an atom creates a more stable arrangement of matter.

  5. Title Pg. 49 Chapter 15 – Yes you have to turn back one page ;-) • In the top right hand corner draw a picture of a dinosaur. In the top left hand corner draw a picture of a giraffe with a long neck. In the bottom right hand corner draw a picture of a giraffe with a short neck. In the bottom left hand corner draw a picture of a Bistonbetularia, as seen on pg. 397 • Explain who Charles Darwin was. • Draw the map of Darwin’s expedition. • Draw figure 15.5 – antibiotic resistance • Draw figure 15.6 – Homologous structures. • Explain under this drawing what a homologous structure is. • Give an example of a Vestigial structure you may have in your body right now. • Using Figure 15.11 Explain how incomplete dominance plays a role in evolution. • What is the state bird of Kansas – draw the best one you can – use the picture on page 404. • Explain each of the following using figure 15.14: Stabilizing Selection, Directional selection, and Disruptive Selection. Pg. 408 – yes draw pictures and explain each.

  6. Do it again Pg. 50 2. Which equation is not consistent with the law of conservation of mass? a. S + O2  SO2 b. KClO3 KCl + O2 c. CaCO3  CaO+CO2 d. Ca + S CaS

  7. Which equation is not consistent with the law of conservation of mass? a. S + O2  SO2 This has equal numbers of each atom on each side of the equation. b. KClO3  KCl + O2 The number of Oxygen atoms on each side of the equation is different. c. CaCO3  CaO + CO2 This has equal numbers of each atom on each side of the equation. d. Ca + S  CaS This has equal numbers of each atom on each side of the equation.

  8. Out Pg. 50 • Double bubble – Charlse Darwin and Gregor Mendel.

  9. Pg. 51 - Packet • Evolution and Natural Selection Packet

  10. Worksheet Pg. 52 • RPDP Evolution and Natural Selection

  11. Pg. 53 – Blank for now

  12. In Pg. 54 • Look at your title page and tell me 3 places Darwin visited on his trip around the world.

  13. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion reactions cause a. atomic nuclei to change. b. electrons to release large amounts of energy. c. protons and electrons to split. d. neutrons and electrons to fuse. Do it now Pg. 54

  14. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion reactions cause a. atomic nuclei to change. Fusion is when the nuclei of two small atoms join to form a larger nucleus; Fission is when one large atomic nucleus splits into two or more smaller nuclei. b. electrons to release large amounts of energy. Both process deal with the nucleus of an atom and not the surround electrons. c. protons and electrons to split. Electrons cannot be broken down into smaller particles. d. neutrons and electrons to fuse. Fission is when nuclei break apart so fusion is impossible here.

  15. Go to page 53 • At the top of page 53 write down Evolution Analysis • Define evolution. • Define Advantageous traits. • Tape in all of your pictures of the organism as it evolved (just your chair) • Explain why you think your organism exhibited traits that made it survive at that time and why you think it changed in the next 1 million years. • Do this for all of the organisms we did in class today.

  16. Butterfly Project • Listen to Mr. Ossana for instructions

  17. Do it again Pg. 54 • In an isotope for a particular element, a. the number of neutrons vary. b. the numbers of electrons vary. c. the number of protons vary. d. radioactivity is always emitted.

  18. 4. In an isotope for a particular element, a. The number of neutrons vary. This is TRUE; the different number of neutrons causes isotopes of the same element to have different mass numbers. b. the numbers of electrons vary. The number of electrons does not affect differences between isotopes of same element. c. the number of protons vary. A change in the number of protons would change the identity of the element in question. d. radioactivity is always emitted. Only unstable atoms are capable of giving off radioactive energy. Not all isotopes are unstable.

  19. Out Pg. 54 • Venn Diagram or Double Bubble Advantageous traits and Evolution.

  20. In Pg. 56 • Look in the glossary of your book, yes go get a book and define Natural Selection. • GET OUT YOUR BUTTERFLIES!

  21. Do it now Pg. 56 • What type of attractive force is found between atoms that are bonded to one another? • a. electrostatic • b. magnetic • c. gravitational • d. nuclear

  22. What type of attractive force is found between atoms that are bonded to one another? a. electrostatic This is the force of attraction between an electron and the nucleus of an atom. When electrons of one atom are more strongly attracted to the nucleus of another atom it cause the two atoms to come together in a chemical bond. b. magnetic This is a force that is caused by a magnetic field and will be exerted on any nearby charged particle. c. gravitational This is the force shared between the masses of two bodies. d. nuclear This is the force of attraction between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

  23. Butterfly Page. 55 – 100pts no butterflies, no points. • Tape your butterflies on to this page after you answer the following questions: • What is natural selection? • How does natural selection relate back to Mendelian Genetics? • What was the butterfly? • What was the bird (teacher who entered the room) what did they represent? • What were the five areas we had for your butterflies?

  24. Notes Pg. 57 • Cornell Style notes • Questions in Red • Answers in blue • Summary in green (5) sentences • Page extender if you run out of room. • Go to my.ccsd.net>Ossana>Biology>Resources>Darwin vs. Lamark.

  25. Lamarck vs. Darwin Intro to change in organisms

  26. What is a theory? • Theory = the most probable explanation for a large set of data based on the best available evidence • Theories are used to make predictions about new data

  27. What was LaMarck’s Theory? • Jean Baptiste LaMarck: 1800’s • Believed: • Change Occurs Over Time • inheritance of acquired characteristics • acquired changes were passed to offspring • Law of Use and Disuse • If a body part were used, it got stronger • If body part NOT used, it deteriorated • Examples: Body builders or pierced ears

  28. Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution • More examples: • Pierced ears • Blacksmiths & Their Sons (muscular arms) • Giraffe’s Necks Longer from stretching)

  29. Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution • More examples • Traits Acquired During Ones Lifetime Would Be Passed To Offspring Clipped ears and tails of dogs could be passed to offspring!

  30. What were Lamarck’s Mistakes? • Was he correct?? • NO! • Traits are passed down from one generation to the next by genes, not by an individual’s life experiences or activities • Lamarck did NOT know how traits were inherited (Traits are passed through genes) • Genes Are NOT Changed By Activities In Life • Change Through Mutation Occurs Before An Organism Is Born

  31. Where did the HMS Beagle go? Charles Darwin • Born Feb. 12, 1809 • Joined Crew of HMS Beagle, 1831 • Naturalist • 5 Year Voyage around world • Astounded By Variety of Life

  32. Voyage of the Beagle During His Travels, Darwin Made Numerous Observations And Collected Evidence That Led Him To Propose A Revolutionary Hypothesis About The Way Life Changes Over Time

  33. What were Darwin’s Beliefs? • Survival of the fittest OR natural selection • Food and resources are limited • So organisms have to fight to get them (lions fight for food, etc) • Too many organisms, they will fight to survive • not all offspring will survive

  34. What happened to the giraffes? • Survival of the fittest or natural selection • Natural selection said the giraffes with short necks had less food to eat • Why? • the food resources changed to leaves only on the upper branches • What happened? • short necks could not reach upper branches and did not survive • Long neck giraffes survived because they were able to reach the food

  35. Evolution is the slow, gradual change in a population of organisms over time… a looooooooong time

  36. Where do we see this change? The unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce leads to a gradual change in a population, with favorable characteristics accumulating over generations “natural selection” New species evolve

  37. What is Natural Selection? • How does Selection occur? • Selection can occur from several factors: • Resource limitation • Predation • Industry (Environment) • Social influence (Society)

  38. Let’s look at a classic example of natural selection • Peppered moths!

  39. Peppered Moth-Evolution in Action • One such example is the evolution of the peppered moth Bistonbetularia. • British ecologist H. B. D. Kettlewell.

  40. Peppered Moth-Evolution in Action • The economic changes known as the industrial revolution began in the middle of the eighteenth century. • Since then, tons of soot have been deposited on the country side around industrial areas.

  41. Peppered Moth-Evolution in Action • The soot discolored and generally darkened the surfaces of trees and rocks. • In 1848, a dark-colored moth was first recorded.

  42. Peppered Moth-Evolution in Action • In 1950 man interceded again with the passage of smoke control laws in England and the land once again began to be green once again.

  43. Peppered Moth-Evolution in Action • During 1966- 1969, a survey of the town showed that of the 972 specimens collected, 25 were of the light speckled variety. • This is a clear indication that the peppered moth is again in the process of changing its color once again.

  44. Do it again Pg. 56 A student hits a hockey puck which slides across a frozen lake. The force required to keep the puck sliding at a constant velocity across the ice is: a. zero Newton’s. b. equal to the weight of the puck. c. the weight of the puck divided by the mass of the puck. d. the mass of the puck multiplied by the weight of the puck.

  45. A student hits a hockey puck which slides across a frozen lake. The force required to keep the puck sliding at a constant velocity across the ice is: a. zero Newton’s. It is the law of inertia (Newton’s first law) an object in motion stays in motion unless acted on by an outside force and ice is nearly frictionless b. equal to the weight of the puck. does not need a force to keep in motion c. the weight of the puck divided by the mass of the puck. Does not follow Newton’s second law. d. the mass of the puck multiplied by the weight of the puck. Does not follow F=mg

  46. Out Pg. 56 • Why was Lamark ultimately wrong in his theory of evolution? • Why was Darwin more correct in his theory of evolution?

  47. In Pg. 58 • What did Lamark say about the neck of a giraffe? • What did Darwin say about the neck of a giraffe?

  48. Do it now Pg. 58 A wave is transporting energy from left to right. The particles of the medium are moving back and forth in a leftward and rightward direction. Which type of wave is this? a. gravitational b. electromagnetic c. transverse d. longitudinal