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Project Management Professional (PMP)

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Project Management Professional (PMP)

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  1. Project Management Professional (PMP) Certification Study Guide

  2. PMI Certification Materials • To assist PMI candidates for completing the PMI certification exam administered by the Project Management Institute • Content is from “A Guide To The Project Management Body Of Knowledge” (PMBOK) • www.pmi.org

  3. Recurring Themes • Historical Records – need to collect and use for planning, estimating and risk • Kickoff meetings are important • Work Breakdown Structures • Do not introduce benefits that are not stated in requirements • Needs of all stakeholders should be taken into account during all projects • Team Members must be involved in project planning • Project Mangers must be pro-active

  4. Chapter 1 – Introduction • Project – temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service • Has a definite beginning and end and interrelated activities • Programs adopt new set of objectives and continue to work; projects cease when declared objectives have been attained

  5. Chapter 1 – Introduction • Projects are unique – characteristics are progressively elaborated • Progressively: proceeding in steps • Elaborated: worked with care and detail • Scope of project should remain constant even as characteristics are “progressively elaborated”

  6. Chapter 1 - Introduction • Project Management: the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a defined project – balancing the following: • Scope, time, cost, and quality • Stakeholders’ expectations • Requirements (needs) vs. unidentified requirements (expectations)

  7. Chapter 1 - Introduction • Programs are groups of projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing the projects individually • Most programs have elements of ongoing operations • Series of repetitive or cyclical undertakings • Projects are often divided into “subprojects” for more manageability • Often contracted out to external organizations

  8. Chapter 2 – Project Management Context • Project Phases are marked by the completion of a deliverable • Tangible, verifiable work product • Review of deliverables and approval/denial are “phase exits, stage gates, or kill points” • Phases are collected into the Project Life Cycle • Set of defined work procedures to establish management control

  9. Chapter 2 – Project Management Context • Project Life Cycle defines: • Technical work performed in each phase • Who is involved in each phase • Project Phases can overlap – “Fast Tracking” • Common Characteristics of Project Life Cycles: • Cost and Staffing levels are low at start and move higher towards the end • Probability of successfully completing project is low at beginning, higher towards the end as project continues • Stakeholder influence is high at the beginning and progressively lowers as project continues

  10. Chapter 2 – Project Management Context • Stakeholders: individuals and organizations who are actively involved in the project • Often have conflicting expectations and objectives • In general, differences should be resolved in favor of the customer – individual(s) or organization(s) that will use the outcome of the project • Stakeholder management is a proactive task • Project Mangers must determine all stakeholders and incorporate their needs into the project

  11. Chapter 2 – Project Management Context • Stakeholders are: • Project Managers • Customers • Performing Organizations, owners • Sponsor • Team • Internal/External • End User • Society, citizens • Others: owner, funders, supplier, contractor

  12. Chapter 2 – Project Management Context • Organizational Systems: Project based vs. Non-Project Based • Project Based – derive revenues from performing projects for others (consultants, contractors),”management by projects” • Non-Project Based – seldom have management systems designed to support project needs (manufacturing, financial services)

  13. Chapter 2 – Project Management Context • Organizational Cultures and Styles: • Entrepreneurial firms more likely to adopt highly participative Project Manager – accept higher risk/reward • Hierarchical firms less likely to adopt participative Project Manager – take fewer risks

  14. Chapter 2 – Project Management Context • Organizational Structures • Functional (classical) marked by identifiable superiors. Staff grouped by specialty . Perceived scope of project limited by function (Engineering, HR). Typically have part-time Project Manager • Projectized Organization –blend functional and projectized characteristics. Mix cross-department personnel with full-time Project Manger

  15. Chapter 2 – Project Management Context • Project Management Skills • General Business Management (consistently producing results expected by stakeholders) • Leading (establishing direction, aligning resources, motivating) • Communicating (clear, unambiguous, and complete) • Negotiating (conferring with others to reach an agreement) • Problem Solving (definition and decision making) • Distinguish causes and symptoms • Identify viable solutions • Influencing Organization (understanding power and politics)

  16. Chapter 2 – Project Management Context • Socioeconomic Influences • Standards – document approved that provides common, repeated use, rules and guidelines • Compliance is not mandatory • Regulations – document that identifies products, services or characteristics • Compliance is mandatory • Standards often become “de facto” regulations • Internationalization • Cultural Influences

  17. Chapter 2 – Project Management Context • Organization Structure Pro’s and Con’s • Projectized • Efficient Organization – No “home” • Loyalty – Lack of Professionalism • Effective Communication – Duplication of functions, less efficient resource usage • Matrix • Visible Objectives – not cost effective • PM Control – More than 1 boss • More support – More complex to control • Utilize scarce resources – Tough resource allocation • Information distribution – Competition of priorities • Coordination – Policies & Procedures • Home based – Potential for conflict

  18. Chapter 2 – Project Management Context • Functional Organization • Specialists – More emphasis on functions • 1 supervisor – No career path in PM

  19. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Project Management requires active management of Project Processes • Series of actions that achieve a result • Project Management Processes • Describing and organizing the work • Product-Oriented Processes • Specifying and creating the product

  20. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Process Groups: • Initiating processes: recognizing a project or phase should begin • Planning processes: devising and maintaining a workable plan • Executing processes: coordinating resources to execute the plan • Controlling processes: ensuring project objectives are met; monitoring, correcting and measuring progress • Closing processes: formalized acceptance

  21. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Process Groups are linked by the results each produces • Process Groups are overlapping activities with various levels of intensity • Process Group interactions cross phases – “rolling wave planning” • Provides details of work to complete current phase and provide preliminary description of work for subsequent phases • Individual processes have inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs (deliverables)

  22. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Initiating and Planning Processes • Committing the organization to begin • Initiation, High-level planning, Charter • Amount of planning proportional to the scope of the project – Core Planning • Scope Planning – written statement • Scope Definition – subdividing major deliverables into more manageable units • Activity Definition – determine specific tasks needed to produce project deliverables • Activity Sequencing – plotting dependencies

  23. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Core Planning (continued) • Activity Duration Estimating – determine amount of work needed to complete the activities • Schedule Development – analyze activity sequences, duration, and resource requirements • Resource Planning – identify what and how many resources are needed to perform the activities • Cost Estimating – develop resource and total project costs • Cost Budgeting – allocating project estimates to individual work items • Project Plan Development – taking results from other planning processes into a collective document

  24. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Planning/Facilitating Processes – manage the interaction among the planning processes • Quality Planning – standards that are relevant to the project and determining how to meet standards • Organizational Planning – identify, document, and assigning project roles and responsibilities • Staff Acquisition – obtaining the human resources • Communications Planning – determining rules and reporting methods to stakeholders

  25. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Planning/Facilitating Processes (continued) • Risk Identification – determining what is likely to affect the project and documenting these risks • Risk Quantification – evaluating risks and interactions to access the possible project outcomes • Risk Response Development – defining enhancement steps and change control measures • Procurement Planning – determining what to buy and when • Solicitation Planning – documenting product requirements and identifying possible sources

  26. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Planning/Facilitating Processes (continued) • Order of events: • Scope Statement • Create Project Team • Work Breakdown Structure • WBS dictionary • Finalize the team • Network Diagram • Estimate Time and Cost • Critical Path • Schedule • Budget • Procurement Plan • Quality Plan • Risk Identification, quantification and response development • Change Control Plan • Communication Plan • Management Plan • Final Project Plan • Project Plan Approval • Kick off

  27. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Executing Processes • Project Plan Execution – performing the activities • Complete Tasks/Work Packages • Information Distribution • Scope Verification – acceptance of project scope • Quality Assurance – evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis; meeting standards • Team Development – developing team and individual skill sets to enhance the project • Progress Meetings

  28. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Executing Processes (continued) • Information Distribution – making project information available in a timely manner • Solicitation – obtaining quotes, bids, proposals as appropriate • Source Selection – deciding on appropriate suppliers • Contract Administration – managing vendor relationships

  29. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Controlling Processes – needed to regularly measure project performance and to adjust project plan • Take preventive actions in anticipation of possible problems • Change Control – coordinating changes across the entire project plan • Scope Change Control – controlling “scope creep” • Schedule Control – adjusting time and project schedule of activities

  30. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Controlling Processes (continued) • Cost Control – managing project budget • Quality Control – monitoring standards and specific project results; eliminating causes of unsatisfactory performance • Performance Reporting – status, forecasting, and progress reporting schedule • Risk Response Control – responding to changes in risk during the duration of the project

  31. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Closing Processes • Administrative Closure – generating necessary information to formally recognize phase or project completion • Contract Close-out – completion and delivery of project deliverables and resolving open issues • Procurement Audits • Product Verification • Formal Acceptance • Lessons Learned • Update Records • Archive Records • Release Team

  32. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Overall Processes • Influencing the organization • Leading • Problem Solving • Negotiating • Communicating • Meetings

  33. Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes • Project Selection Techniques • Comparative Approach (similar projects) • Benefit measurement method • Constrained Optimization (mathematical approach) • Key aspect of scope verification is customer acceptance • Only 26 % of projects succeed

  34. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Project Integration Management • Ensures that the project processes are properly coordinated • Tradeoffs between competing objectives and alternatives in order to meet stakeholder approval • Project Plan Development • Project Plan Execution • Overall Change Control • These processes may occur repeatedly over the project duration • Historical Records are needed to perform project management well, they are inputs to continuous improvement • Files • Lessons Learned • Actual Costs • Time Estimates • WBS • Benchmarks • Risks

  35. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Project Plan Development • Uses outputs from other planning processes to create consistent document to guide project execution and control • Iterated several times • Documents planning assumptions • Documents planning decisions that are chosen • Facilitates communication • Defines key management reviews • Provides a baseline to track progress measurement and project control

  36. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Project Plan Development Inputs • Other planning outputs: primarily the planning process outputs (WBS, base documents, application area inputs) • Historical information – verify assumptions, records of past project performance • Organizational policies – quality management, personnel administration, Financial controls • Constraints – factors that limit performance, contractual provisions, budget • Assumptions – risk factors

  37. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Tools & Techniques for Plan Development • Project Planning Methodology – any structured approach (software, templates, forms, start-up meetings • Stakeholder Skills & Knowledge – tap into plan development; use expertise for reasonableness • PMIS – Out of the box approach to support all project aspects through closure

  38. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Project Plan Development Outputs • Project Plan is a collection that changes over time as more information about the project becomes available • Baseline will change only in response to approved scope change • Project Plan includes some or all of the following: • Project Charter • Project Management approach or strategy • Scope statement • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • Budget, schedule, risks • Key Staff, Major Milestones • Change Control Plan, Management and Communications Plan

  39. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Project Plan Components (continued) • Cost Estimates, scheduled start dates and responsibility assignments • Performance measurement baselines • Major milestones and target dates • Required Staff • Risks, constraints and assumptions • Subsidiary management plans (scope, schedule) • Open Issues • Pending Decisions

  40. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Supporting Details to the Project Plan • Outputs from planning processes • Technical documentation • Business requirements, specifications, and designs • Relevant standards • Additional information not previously known

  41. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Project Plan Execution • Primary process for carrying out the project plan • Most costly aspect of project management • Direction of organizational resources and interfaces

  42. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Project Plan Execution Inputs: • Project Plan • Supporting Detail • Organizational Policies • Corrective Action – anything to bring expected performance in line with the project plan

  43. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Tools & Techniques for Plan Execution • General Management Skills • Product Skills and Knowledge – defined as part of planning, provided by staffing • Work Authorization System – formal procedure for sanctioning work to ensure completion – written or verbal authorization • Status review meetings – regular exchanges of information • Project Management Information System • Organizational Procedures

  44. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Project Plan Execution Outputs • Work results – the outcome of activities performed is fed into the performance reporting process • Change Requests – expand/shrink project scope, modify costs and schedule estimates

  45. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Overall Change Control • Influencing factors that create change to ensure beneficial results; ensure that change is beneficial • Determining that change has occurred • Managing actual changes as they occur • Evaluate impact of change • Meet with team to discuss alternatives • Meet with management to present decision • Change control requires • Maintaining integrity of performance measurement baselines (project plan) • Ensuring changes to scope are accurately recorded • Coordinating changes across knowledge areas (scheduling, risk, cost, quality, etc.) • Determine all factors that control change and pro-actively preventing the occurrence; evaluate the impact of change

  46. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Inputs to Change Control • Project Plan – baseline performance • Performance Reports – issue tracking, risk management • Change Requests – orally or written, externally or internally initiates, legally mandated or optional

  47. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Change Control Tools & Techniques • All Changes must be evaluated before a decision can be reached • Change Control System – collection of formal procedures, paperwork, tracking systems, approval levels • Change Control Board – decision making authority • Configuration Management – documented procedure to apply technical and administrative direction • ID and document functional and physical characteristics • Control changes to these characteristics • Record and report change and implementation status • Audit items and system to verify requirements

  48. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Change Control Tools & Techniques • Performance Measurement – earned value, plan variance analysis • Additional Planning – revised cost estimates, modify activity sequences, plan adjustments • Project Management Information System • Change Control System may have • Change Control Plan • Change Control Board • Change Control Procedures, Corrective Action plans • Performance Statistics, Reports, Change forms • Specification reviews, Demonstrations, Testing, Meetings • Configuration Management

  49. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Change Control Outputs • Project Plan Updates • Corrective Actions • Lessons Learned – variance causes and reasoning documented for historical purposes

  50. Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management • Configuration Management • Rigorous Change Management as it relates to scope • Subset of the change control system • Work Authorization System • Controls “gold plating”; defines what task is/is not • Meetings • Most are inefficient; keep minutes • Status can be determined without meeting