1 / 10


Attention. Faezeh Dehghan OTR. Phd student of Neuroscience. کارگاه تخصصی توانبخشی توجه از سری کارگاه های آخر هفته های شناختی. SELECTIVE ATTENTION. the ability of the subject to process selectively some events to the detriment of others.

Télécharger la présentation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Attention FaezehDehghan OTR. Phd student of Neuroscience کارگاه تخصصیتوانبخشی توجه از سری کارگاه های آخر هفته های شناختی faezeh.dehghan@gmail.com

  2. SELECTIVE ATTENTION • the ability of the subject to process selectively some events to the detriment of others. • specific control mechanisms for the sensory input of different modalities • there are also more specific control mechanisms within a single modality. For example, within the visual modality, there are specific mechanisms and pathways for the analysis of form, colour, and movement, respectively • Each of these channels is under the control of specialized functions, which facilitates the analysis of the specific stimulus attributes James (1890): It is the taking possession of the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration, of consciousness are of its essence. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others. (pp. 403–404) faezeh.dehghan@gmail.com

  3. Attention Selectivity • First aspect : they emphasize the significance of selective attentional processes for more effective processing of relevant information • selection can refer to a segment in space or to certain semantic attributes of the signal, and thus can be triggered by exogenic and endogenic conditions. • A specific aspect of selective attention Posner and Rafal discuss is ‘overt’ and ‘covert orienting of attention’, whereby especially in reference to the latter they distinguish between facilitator (favored by valid cueing) and inhibitory (inhibition of return) components faezeh.dehghan@gmail.com

  4. Attention Selectivity • But there are also other functions of selective visual attention facilitating the processing of stimuli in a specific location in space: the ‘localization based’ orienting of attention or ‘covert shift of attention • or, with respect to predefined attributes that characterize a specific object, the ‘object-based’ orienting of attention. faezeh.dehghan@gmail.com

  5. Divided Attention • Van Zomeren and Brouwer’s model (1994) mentions ‘divided attention’ asthe second component of selective attentional processes • The ability to meet simultaneous demands of tasks • capacity model of attention: capacity models assume that simultaneous performance on two tasks demands that the available resources are divided among both tasks, whereby capacity and thus performance can be increased with increased effort • Components of a capacity model propose that simultaneous performance on several tasks is only possible when switching between the competing tasks is successful. • The theoretical discussion above regarding whether dual-task performance is based on a capacity or a switching model is also important in clinical settings, because we need to know what functions cause the difficulties encountered by patients in dual-task situations faezeh.dehghan@gmail.com

  6. Control of the attentional focus and flexibility • Selective attention does not refer exclusively to the ability to focus attentionor the ability to simultaneously perform competing tasks. • When one speaks of focusing or directed and divided attention, one should also consider what controls the attentional focus. • Controlling attentional focus represents a key aspect of selective attention • attentional processes have the task of directing and monitoring behaviour when we are confronted with multiple, competing distractors. • Adapting the guidance of attentional processes to the needs of the individual in a given situation is a central aspect of selective attentional performance. • This is only possible when the individual has continuous control over the goals he or she has set and the internal and external conditions under which the goals are to be met. faezeh.dehghan@gmail.com

  7. Control of the attentional focus and flexibility • the aspect of attentional control by means of external and internal factors can be subsumed under the concept of ‘flexibility’ as an independent component of selective attention • Flexibility manifests itself in a large spectrum of activities: for example in perception, where the subject has to change his or her point of view continually, adapting his or her behaviour to the given and probably continuously changing conditions, and reorienting his or her goals of action when the adopted direction leads to no end. • So, flexibility does not represent a single function, but is quite a comprehensive capacity that covers specific attentional functions as well as higher cognitive functions. • Correspondingly, intelligence, creativity, problem solving and so on requireflexible thinking • As is true of other attentional systems, flexibility is not a unitary function but a capacity that is involved in multiple stages of processing. Thus, specific forms of flexible behavioural control have been commonly referred to as ‘shift’ or ‘orienting Eslinger and Grattan (1993) contend that: ‘Cognitive flexibility commonly refers to the ability to shift avenues of thought and action in order to perceive, process and respond to situations in different ways. It is an essential feature of adaptive human behaviour that is frequently altered by brain damage’ faezeh.dehghan@gmail.com

  8. Control of the attentional focus and flexibility faezeh.dehghan@gmail.com

  9. Control of the attentional focus and flexibility • Flexibility is not only a cognitive process because emotional and motivational processes also play a significant role in both the external and the internal control of behaviour and thus also in attention. Parasuraman (1998) : ‘Of course, an organism’s goals are themselves determined not only by the environment but by the organism’s internal dispositions, both temporary and enduring; that is presumably what links attention to motivation and emotion’ (Parasuraman, 1998, p. 6). faezeh.dehghan@gmail.com

  10. کارگاه تخصصیتوانبخشی توجه سپاس‌گذاریم www.farvardin-group.com @farvardin_group_channel @neuroscience4family @farvardin_group96 faezeh.dehghan@gmail.com

More Related