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Disaster Relief Systems, Network Resilience and Recovery in Japan

Disaster Relief Systems, Network Resilience and Recovery in Japan. June 2012 Michiko Fukahori Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Japan. Contents. 1. The Great East Japan Disaster 2. Damage to the Telecommunication Network

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Disaster Relief Systems, Network Resilience and Recovery in Japan

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  1. Disaster Relief Systems, Network Resilience and Recovery in Japan June 2012 Michiko Fukahori Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Japan

  2. Contents 1. The Great East Japan Disaster 2. Damage to the Telecommunication Network 3. MIC Study Report “Maintaining Communications Capabilities during Major Natural Disasters and other Emergency Situations”

  3. 1. The Great East Japan Disaster ~ What has happened ~

  4. The Great East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami - Date and Time: 11 March 2011 (FRI) 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) - Magnitude: 9.0(the largest magnitude recorded in Japan’s history) - Epicenter: N38.1, E142.9 (130km ESE off Oshika Peninsula) Depth 24km Miyako (Iwate) Run-up height:38m* JMA Seismic Intensity Sendai Otsuchi (Iwate) Run-up height:17m* Tokyo Epicenter Kesennuma (Miyagi) Run-up height: 20m* Fukushima nuclear power station (Japan Meteorological Agency) * The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Joint Survey Group (http://www.coastal.jp/)

  5. The 3.11 Disaster Miyako City, Iwate Prefecture

  6. Summary of Damages *1As of November 7, 2011 (source: National Police Agency) *2As of November 24, 2011 (source: MAFF)

  7. Thanks for assistance from all around the world Offers from 163countries and regions,and 43international organizations Condolences expressed by more than 180countries and regions, and more than 60international organizations As of October 17,2011, survey by Ministry of Foreign Affairs Japan 7

  8. Thanks for Assistance for Communication from ITU On 14th March 2011, Secretary General of ITU kindly offered emergency assistance utilizing satellite communications equipment from International Telecommunication Union (ITU) • ITU deploys a total of 153 satellite communications equipment units for free and does not charge a communication fee. • • 78 Thuraya satellite phones • • 13 Iridium satellite phones • • 62 Inmarsat Broadband Global Area Network terminals. • Those were lent out free of charge to Local governments, etc. via MIC. It helped local governments largely to deal with emergency situation just after the disaster.

  9. 2. Damage to the Telecommunication Network ~ Lessons Learned ~

  10. Damage to Fixed Lines, Mobile Base Stations Mobile Communications Fixed-line Communications ■  In total, around 1.9 millioncommunication lines were damaged. ■  In total, about 29,000 base stationswere damaged. 15000 ~ ~ Max. no. of damaged base stations Max. no. of damaged lines [Unit: 10,000 Lines] [base stations] fixed-line phones fixed-line phones FTTH +ADSL fixed-line phones FTTH

  11. Network Congestion Mobile Communications Fixed-line Communications ■Carriers restricted phone traffic by as much as 80 to 90 percent.* ■Carriers restricted voice traffic by as much as 70 to 95 percent.* ■Packet traffic, however, was either not restricted or restricted at a lower rate (0 to 30 percent). * There was 4 to 9 times the normal volume of traffic (NTT East.) * There was 50 to 60 times the normal volume of traffic (DoCoMo). eMobile was not subject to restrictions. Max. outgoing traffic restrictions Max. outgoing traffic restrictions voice packet voice packet voice packet

  12. Trend of shut down mobile base stations No. of households without electricity [Unit: 10,000 houses] No. of disabled base stations MAX : About 6.6 thousands stations MAX : About 4 thousands stations MAX : About 3.8 thousands stations After Shock (M7.4) MAX : About 6 hundreds stations NTT DoCoMo Softbank mobile No. of households without electricity under the jurisdiction of Tohoku Electric Power eMobile KDDI (au)

  13. Locations of Damage to Mobile Networks Base stations collapsed or backup batteries ran out Backup generators ran out of fuel because of long power outages NTT central office, customer building, etc. (relay building) NTT central office (housing building) Transmission line relay station Base station RNC Communication cable Trunk exchange Cables cut off or duct destroyed Area A Area B

  14. Causes of Damages Resulting from the Great East Japan Earthquake ■Over 80% of communications breakdown both cases of fixed and mobile was caused by widespread and prolonged power outages. Fixed telephone Mobile telephone

  15. Characteristics of the Disaster • The most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan and the extremely destructive tsunami • -Telecommunication infrastructure seriously destroyed and carried away, especially in the Pacific coast region • The earthquake and tsunami triggered power disruption and the electricity supply stopped for a few days. • - Battery and fuel for electrical generators exhausted • Emergency alert was highly crucial. • - Some half an hour to evacuate after the earthquake until seawater flooded to the people • Telephone congested extensively with so many calls • - Not only in devastated Tohoku region, but also in metropolitan area because of so many calls made by a large number of commuters unable to get home due to traffic paralysis • Restoration activities confronted with the difficulties caused by nuclear accidents

  16. 3. MIC Study Report “Maintaining Communications Capabilities duringMajor Natural Disasters and other Emergency Situations”

  17. Study at MIC Study Group on Maintaining Communications Capabilities during Major Natural Disasters and other Emergency Situations - Set up by MIC in April 2011 - Members: telecommunications carriers, vendors, internet service providers, application service providers, academia, and MIC - Published a report in December 2011 The report includes: - Summary of the 3.11 disaster and its recovery - Action plan to protect the network against future disasters MIC: the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications

  18. Outline of the Final Report Alleviating congestion in emergency situations Minimizing disruption to communications in the event of damage to base and/or relay stations Implications of the recent disaster for future network infrastructure Implications of the recent disaster for future internet usage

  19. 3-1. Alleviating Congestion in Emergency Situations 1. Ensuring voice call capability (1) Revision of the design capacity of switching equipment and other measures to upgrade the overall capacity of the telecommunications network (2) Ensuring the stable viability of emergency priority calls (3) Consideration of new service types aimed at boosting the viability of voice calls (call length limit/reduced sound quality) 2. Expanding/Improving means of communication other than voice calls (1) Boosting the sophistication of emergency message services (Upgrade emergency message services (cross-referenced search) (2) Voice-based services not employing the telephone network (Convert Voice Messages into Data Files) (3) Addressing delays in mobile phone text message transmission (4) Simplified handsets for senior citizens 3.Keeping users informed of available means of communication during emergency (1) Effective information distribution via emergency notifications to mobile phones and broadcast media (2) Sharing and supplying of congestion and communications restrictions information through cooperation between the government and carriers (3) Education and distribution of information on communication methods during states of emergency in ordinary times 4. Designing robust networks to cope with congestion (R&D on Dynamic Control of Mobile Communication Networks at the Time of a Major Disaster)

  20. Upgrade Emergency Message Services (cross-referenced searching) ■Upgrading emergency message services to allow cross-referencing (i.e. searching) of different emergency message services. Register message/information of safety Confirmation of message/safety Registered: 570,000Viewed: 2,760,000 Maximum capacity: 8 million messages Retention time: 48 hours Emergency message dial (171) (全国50箇所) ・・・・・・・・ Replay voice message/information of safety 50 sites nationwide ・・・・・・・・ 伝言蓄積装置 伝言蓄積装置 Storage device Storage device Record voice message/information of safety Fixed line network 固定電話網 固定電話番号(10桁)で登録 Registered with fixed line telephone number (10 digits) Emergency broadband message board (web171) Capacity: 500 million messages (text equivalent) Retention time: 48 hours 伝言容量:5億伝言(テキスト換算) 伝言保持:48時間 伝言サーバ (web171) Message server (web171) Evacuation center A Register message/information of safety via the internet Registered: 110,000Viewed: 180,000 View message/information of safety via the internet インターネット Internet Not evacuation centers Register with fixed-line phone number within disaster-affected region(mobile and IP numbers may also be used) 被災地内の固定電話番号で登録 (なお、携帯電話やIP電話番号等も利用可能) Text Voice (attached file) Image (attached file) https://www.web171.jp Computer etc. Cross-referenced searching (at the initial stage, combined searching of emergency message boards and web171) Mobile phone/PHS emergency message boards Registered: 1,570,000Viewed: 2,810,000 Register message/information of safety on message servers maintained by mobile carriers Message server View message/information of safety on message board services of mobile carriers 伝言サーバー Message server 伝言サーバー 各社携帯電話網 伝言サーバー Message server Retention time: duration of the service for a specific disaster Mobile networks Registered with telephone number (11 digits) 携帯電話番号(11桁)で登録

  21. Convert Voice Messages into Data Files ■Mobile carriers are introducing emergency voice message services for sending voice messages via the packet network at times of disaster. ■Telecommunications Carries Association (TCA) developed a set of guidelines that includes interface specifications for interconnection to enable cross-communication among carriers. Voice call network It is difficult to make contact because there is congestion after disaster ①Voice call (2)SMSnotifications to B Notice that B received the message (1)Send voice messages Digitalize and send the message to B How the service works Send voice messages by means of packet communications Packet network Message Server of B (DoCoMo center) Called party Calling Party Message receipt notifications Send voice messages Receive voice messages Message replay notifications (3)Replay messages Download and replay voice messages (4)SMS notifications to A Notice that B received the message automatically B A

  22. R&D on Dynamic Control of Mobile Communication Networks at the Time of a Major Disaster • Flexible reconfiguration of communication processing resources • Maximum possible resources can be directed to basic communication services during a disaster. Next-generation congestion-proof system Email, internet Email, internet Voice calls Music Movies Files Voice calls Music Movies Files Normal use … … Basic communication services Rich media etc. Basic communication services Rich media etc. Emergency use … Email, internet (emergency message boards) Voice calls Other Voice calls Music Movies Files Email, internet (emergency message boards) No possibility to reconfigure or redirect processing resources Dynamic allocation of processing resources

  23. 3-2. Minimizing Disruption to Communications in the Event of Damage to Base and/or Relay Stations 1. Emergency repairs to damaged telecommunications infrastructure (1) Emergency repairs to base stations and local stations (2) Emergency repairs of transmission routes (3) Network sharing and collaboration between carriers during states of emergency (4) Information sharing and partnerships between relevant administrative institutions and infrastructure organizations 2. Providing communications capability to disaster-affected regions and evacuation centers (1) Securing and providing communications capability based on the length of time elapsed since disaster struck (Satellite-based mobile phones) (2) Advance deployment of effective means of communication in evacuation centers, etc. (Public Telephones as Means of Communication in Disaster)

  24. 3-2. Minimizing Disruption to Communications in the Event of Damage to Base and/or Relay Stations 3. Ensuring stability of power supplies (Planned Revision to Technical Standards on Measures against Power Outage) (1) Ensuring emergency generators (including ensuring fuel) suited to the type and size of telecommunications facilities (2) Dissemination of information on the availability of fixed-line phones during electrical blackouts, and promotion of the use of battery powered fixed-line phones (3) Steps by manufacturers, etc. to reduce the power consumption of facilities and terminals, development of more lightweight and longer-lived batteries etc. 4. Providing emergency information and disaster damage reports (1) Effective use of emergency notification text messages on mobile phone (Emergency e-mail Notifications by mobile phone) (2) Enhancement and improvement of restoration area maps (3) Boosting the sophistication of services for verification of individual’s safety (using location data from mobile phone, etc.) (4) Development of simplified devices for senior citizens and other means of providing information with consideration given to information literacy and accessibility

  25. Satellite-based Mobile Phones ■In order to secure means of communications for local governments in a time of disaster, MIC maintains reserve stores of satellite-based mobile telephones and simple radio communication devices and is formulating a system for lending these terminals free of charge to affected local governments. ■In the Great East Japan Earthquake, the MIC loaned 214 satellite-based mobile telephones, 230 multichannel-access (MCA) radio communication devices, and 1,355 simple radio communication devices. (2)Instruction to lend (3)Transportation to affected area Affected area Storage depot How is the river? Relevant organizations MIC Bureau of Telecommunications (1)Loan request Emergency response headquarters No flooding. Understood Used as means of communication at disaster recovery centers and at on-site disaster management headquarters Preparation completed.

  26. Public Telephones as Means of Communication in Disasters Number of permanent public telephones (Type I) ■Current 109,000 public telephones should be maintained so as not to reduce the level of “minimal means of outdoor communication”, in disasters and other emergencies. Ad-hoc public telephones ■It is hoped NTT East & West promote measures for ex-ante installation of ad-hoc public telephones at evacuation points and in convenience stores. Measures for improving convenience Providing information on the location of public telephones ■NTT East & West should, using Web pages and other media, disclose widely the locations of permanent and ad-hoc public telephones. Announcements to users ■NTT East & West should make efforts to publicize when call charges are to be waived during a disaster or other emergency. ■ Japan’s Telecommunications Carriers Association(TCA) and MIC should make efforts to publicize this information and the universal service system.

  27. Planned Revision to Technical Standards on Measures against Power Outage 【Measures against Power Outage】 • ●Longer operation times for backup power generators and storage batteries • Considering a possibility of widespread and prolonged power outage that affects operation times for backup power generators and storage batteries, take necessary measures, including stockpiling of sufficient fuel and securing means of supplement, with respect to equipment that provide communications functionality to core emergency response facilities such as prefectural and municipal government offices.. • ●Reporting/disclosure of backup power systems and procedures • Report to MIC of measures against power outage (e.g. basic policy for operation times of communications functionality during a power outage, information on equipment with added protection against power outage and corresponding coverage areas, fuel reserves and supply systems) and status of deployment of equipment for emergency restoration (e.g. mobile power generator trucks). • Disclose information on coverage areas of mobile base stations with backup power.

  28. Emergency earthquake notification Disaster and evacuation procedures Emergency email Notifications by mobile phone ■Mobile carriers are introducing emergency email notification systems. ■ They are also widening the scope to include tsunami warnings as well as emergency earthquake notifications, in cooperation with the Meteorological Agency. Generated by system automatically Meteorological Agency ・ Messages appear on pop-up screen. ・ Emergency earthquake notifications and Area Mail messages use a special ringtone and/or vibration pattern. Same system as for tsunami warnings Area Mail Center Dedicated line Internet ・ Sent to all mobile phones serviced by base stations within a given area simultaneously ・ Unaffected by network congestion Emergency earthquake notification Earthquake has occurred at ●●●. Be prepared for strong tremors.(Meteorological Agency) ) Enter manually on website Local government

  29. 3-3. Implications of the Recent Disaster for Future Network Infrastructure 1. Improving the disaster resilience of network (1) Ensuring network safety and reliability (Planned Revisions to Technical Standards on Safety and Reliability) (2) Promoting introduction of local government common duct etc. (3) Infrastructure deployment to suit the recovery plan of the affected area (4) R&D to improve network disaster-resistance (Research & development to enhance communication-network resistance to disasters) 2. Setting up systems and structures for responding to disaster (1) Verification/review of structure for responding to disasters at relevant telecommunications carriers (2) Information sharing/conveyance structure between the national government, relevant enterprises and local government

  30. Planned Revisions to Technical Standards on Safety and Reliability I. Power outage II. Damage to trunk transmission lines Augmented with wide-zone base stations ① Longer operating times for backup power generators and storage batteries ⑥ Reports and updates on repairs to trunk transmission lines ② Reports and updates on efforts to restore power Central disaster response facility Central disaster response facility Spare line (micro-entrance link) V. Other Mobile power generator trucks 24-hour operation of backup power generators and storage batteries ⑬ Improve PHS resilience to power outages Mobile base station trucks ⑤ Additional base station capacity at central disaster response facility ⑫ Designate organizations with priority access to telephone network in an emergency ④ Improve loop structure network reliability Authentication system ③ Provide multiple transmission routes between all exchange facilities Authentication system ⑦ Geographical dispersion of key telecommunications facilities ⑩ Analyze network usage during restricted periods ⑨ Reports and updates on design capacity ⑧ Response based on hazard maps IV. Network congestion and priority communication services ⑪ Updates on network congestion III. Tsunami/flooding

  31. Research & development to enhance communication-network resistance to disasters Based on lessons from the damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami, MIC implements research and development of disaster-proof technology to strengthen the critical ICT infrastructure. (1) Improvement of availability Research and development of technology to suppress telecommunication congestion of mobile-network and others by flexible-allocation of network-resource between different networks, when congestion is caused by a disaster. (2)Improvement of interoperability Research and development of technology to reconstruct network-infrastructures immediately and automatically between different networks, when network-infrastructures are broken by the disaster, such as earthquake or tsunami, etc. Using the testbed in the stricken area (Tohoku area), actual proof experiments will be conducted. Image transmission Internet connection Internet line Emergency call Data line Network Mobile network Interoperability between different telecommunication devices Flexible telecommunication between different networks Tohoku area

  32. 3-4. Implications of the Recent Disaster for Future Internet Usage 1. Maintaining the viability of Internet connections (1) Safeguarding Internet access and functionality (Review of Bandwidth-control Guideline) (2) Approaches to network construction underpinning the Internet 2. Effective use of the Internet (1) Information sharing over the Internet (Publication of Recovery/ Reconstruction Data in Digital Format) (2) Use of social media services (3) Use of mirror sites (4) Information gap considerations (5) Effective use of the Internet 3. Application of cloud services (1) Active use of cloud services (2) Collaborations between cloud service providers (R&D on Inter-Cloud Technology for Wide-area Disaster Responses) 4. Building collaborative frameworks among Telecommunications operators to prepare for disaster (1) Operator collaborations to secure communications in the event of a disaster (2) Coordination of disaster message boards

  33. Review of Bandwidth-Control Guideline Background to bandwidth control ■Internet traffic has increased dramatically with the spread of broadband. In particular, situations in which heavy users occupied too much network bandwidth existed. ■Some ISPs applied bandwidth control to deal with the occupation of bandwidth by heavy users. Formulating the guidelines for bandwidth-control operating standards ■In May 2008, an association of telecommunications operators (with MIC participating as observer) formulated a guideline for bandwidth-control operating standards (partly revised in June 2010). The purpose of the guideline is to establish minimum-requirement rules for operating standards, so avoiding arbitrary bandwidth controls. Overview of guideline for bandwidth-control operating standards ● Categories of bandwidth control Control of communications bandwidth by heavy users exceeding a set traffic volume Control of communications bandwidth targeting specific applications (e.g., P2P) ● Organizing issues related to the Telecommunications Business Law: secrecy of communications, non-discrimination between users, and information disclosure Reviewedguideline was published in March 2012 focusing on traffic control for temporarily restricting users’ access to bandwidth across the board with a view to preventing entire network congestion during disaster.

  34. Publication of Recovery/Reconstruction data in Digital Format ■Information should be provided in HTML and CSV formats (not only in PDF, Word, Excel) in order to ensure the secondary use, access by mobile phone and to reduce the burden on networks.

  35. R&D on Inter-Cloud Technology for Wide-area Disaster Responses • Sharing resources among multiple cloud systems by optimal communication route after a large-scale disaster • Transfer whole processing functions from one cloud to another within 30 minutes Advantages of the Inter-cloud approach - Individual operators can keep investment costs to a minimum. - Small and medium-sized operators will not be forced out of business. 2 stand-by facilities Cloud 1 Normal load 3 facilities Overload 4 facilities Use stand-by facilities of other carriers Cloud data center A Cloud 2 Cloud 3 Available to local businesses in the Tohoku region 1 stand-by facility 1 stand-by facility Boost disaster response capacity by Inter- clouds dispersed around remote regions Inter-Cloud Inter-Cloud test bed Cloud data center B Technology for instant switching based on validation using JGN-X Cloud data center C

  36. The final report The final report (English version) is available at: http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_content/000146938.pdf Press Release: Official Announcement of Final Report on the Maintaining Communications Capabilities during Major Natural Disasters and other Emergency Situations (December 28, 2011) http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_sosiki/joho_tsusin/eng/Releases/Telecommunications/11122803.html

  37. Thank you for your attention!

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