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Ontology Building Methodologies and Tools

Ontology Building Methodologies and Tools

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Ontology Building Methodologies and Tools

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  1. Ontology Building Methodologies and Tools SSSW03 Federica Schiappelli LEKS, IASI-CNR Rome, 19-09-03 From the Asun Gómez-Pérez lectures Ontological Engineering:Methodologies and Tools Asunción Gómez-Pérez, Mariano Fernández-López,Oscar Corcho

  2. Summary • The word “Ontology” • Ontological Engineering: Methodologies • Ontological Engineering: Tools • Conclusions • References SSSW 2003

  3. Management Building Merging Ontology Translation Mapping Reuse Learning Evolution Evaluation The word “Ontology” • Ontology: a fashionable word in the last decade Methodologies Languages Tools SSSW 2003

  4. What is an ontology? • Many definitions have been given: • from Philosophy: “a systematic explanation of being” • Neches gives some guidelines: “…defines the basic terms and relations including the vocabulary of a topic area as well as the rules for combining terms and relations to define extensions to the vocabulary.” • Gruber, the most quoted: “…an explicit specification of a conceptualization” • Borst, slightly modified:“…a formal specification of a shared conceptualization” • Guarino: “…a logical theory which gives an explicit, partial account of a conceptualization” SSSW 2003

  5. Summary • The word “Ontology” • Ontological Engineering: Methodologies • Ontological Engineering: Tools • Conclusions • References SSSW 2003

  6. Methodologies for Ontology Building • Building domain ontologies from huge ontologies (SENSUS, Cyc, AKT,…) • OTK (On-To-Knowledge) Methodology Univ. of Kharlsrhue • Methontology Univ. Politecnica de Madrid SSSW 2003

  7. The SENSUS approach • Linking Domain Specific Terms to a broad Coverage Ontology • METHOD: • Identify “seed” terms • Link seed terms to SENSUS by hand • Include nodes on the path to root • Add entire subtrees using the heuristic: • If many nodes in a subtree are relevant, • the other nodes in the subtree are relevant • prune the skeletal ontology using heuristics SSSW 2003

  8. SENSUS: An example SSSW 2003

  9. SENSUS: An example (cont’d) SSSW 2003

  10. The OTK methodology SSSW 2003

  11. OKT:Ontology Development Activities • Feasibility study • Focus the domain, identify people involved • Kickoff • Ontology Requirement Spec Doc: potential users, available sources, baseline description from competency questions, brainstorming • Refinement • Knowledge elicitation with domain experts, formalization • Inferencing • F-logic, implementation issues • Evaluation • Check requirements, tests, quality (Ontoclean) • Application&Evolution • Maintenance program, expected lifetime estimation SSSW 2003

  12. The Methontology Framework • Ontology Development Process (which activities) • Management, Development, Support • Life Cycle (order of activities) • Evolving Prototype. • Methodology (how to carry out) • Specification • Knowledge Acquisition • Conceptualization • Integration • Implementation • Evaluation • Documentation SSSW 2003

  13. Methontology:Ontology Development Activities SSSW 2003

  14. Ontology Specification Document METHONTOLOGY: Specification • Produce an Ontology Specification Document (OSD) • Content • Purpose • Scenarios of use • Possible end users • Level of formality of the ontology • Scope • Granularity • Technique • Competency Questions • Output SSSW 2003

  15. METHONTOLOGY: Conceptualization • Organize and structure the knowledge acquired during the knowledge acquisition • Terms glossary from Ontology Spec Doc • Primitives for Modelling Taxonomies • Subclass-of • Disjoint decomposition • Exhaustive-Decomposition • Partition • Ad-hoc relations • Definition of • Concept Dictionary, Instance Attributes,Class Attributes • Formal axioms, Rules, Instances SSSW 2003

  16. Other methodologies (1/3) • Ontology building • Cyc methodology • Manual codification of common sense knowledge extracted by hand, machine learning tools for new knowledge acquisition • Uschold and King • Identify the purpose, build, evaluate, document • Gruniger and Fox • Identify the main scenarios, identify the competency questions, extract relevant concepts and relations, formalize in FOL • KACTUS methodology • Ontology built on the basis of an application KB, by abstraction • OPAL (Object,Process,Actor modelling language) SSSW 2003

  17. Other methodologies (2/3) • Ontology reengineering • Extension of methontology • Ontology cooperativeconstruction • CO4 methodology • (KA)2 methodology SSSW 2003

  18. Other methodologies (3/3) • Ontology learning • Aussenac-Gille methodology • Maedche methodology • Ontology merging methodologies • FCA-merge • PROMPT • ONIONS • Ontology evaluation methods • Ontoclean (Guarino) • Gomez-Perez eval methodology • OntoLearn SSSW 2003

  19. Summary • The word “Ontology” • Ontological Engineering: Methodologies • Ontological Engineering: Tools • Conclusions • References SSSW 2003

  20. Which tool??? • The one I like most? • The one I know the best? • The one that translates the ontology into a given implementation language? • The one that best fits my needs? SSSW 2003

  21. Types of Ontology Tools • Ontology development tools • Editors and browsers • Graphical editors • Translators • Ontology library management • Ontology documentation • Ontology population • Evaluation • Evolution • Merge and alignement tools • Ontology-based annotation tools • Querying tools and inference engines • Ontology learning tools SSSW 2003

  22. Some tools • OilEd from University of Manchester http://oiled.man.ac.uk/ • Ontolingua from KSL (Stanford University) http://www-ksl.stanford.edu • OntoSaurus from ISI (USA) http://www.isi .edu/isd/ontosaurus.html • OntoEdit from Karlsrhue Univ. http://ontoserver.aifb.unikarlsruhe.de/ontoedit/ • Protégé 2000 from SMI (Stanford University) http://protege.stanford.edu / • WebOnto from KMI (Open University) http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/webonto/ • WebODE from UPM http://webode.dia.fi.upm.es/webODE/ • KAON from AIFB and FZI at the University of Karlsruhe http://kaon.semanticweb.org/ SymOntoX from LEKS http://www.symontox.org/ SSSW 2003

  23. Tools for Ontological Engineering (1/3) • Protégé2000 • Technology: Java standalone application; plug-in architecture • Knowledge model features: OKBC compliant: classes and slots. Also metaclasses Axioms in KIF and PAL Knowledge acquisition forms automatically generated for capturing instances • Merge tools: protégéPrompt • Imports: RDF, OIL, XML • Exports: RDF, OIL, XML • WebODE • Technology: Java workbench. • Knowledge model features: • Support to Methontology; OCML; axioms in Prolog • Imports: RDF(S), OIL, DAML+OIL, F-logic, Prolog • Exports: RDF(S), DAML+OIL, OWL , F-logic, Prolog SSSW 2003

  24. Tools for Ontological Engineering (2/3) • OILed • Technology: Java standalone application. Backends can be added easily. • Knowledge model features: • SHIQ: classes organized in class taxonomies, properties, property restrictions and individuals. Disjoint and exhaustive subclass decompositions. • Imports: RDF(S), OIL, DAML+OIL, SHIQ • Exports: RDF(S), DAML+OIL, OWL, SHIQ • Inference engine: FaCT, RACER • OntoEdit • Technology: Java standalone application • Knowledge model features: • Support to OTK methodology • Multilingual development of ontologies, Multiple inheritance • Basic Axioms: disjoint concepts, symmetric relations, transitive relations. • Imports: RDF, DAML+OIL, XML, FLogic • Exports: RDF, DAML+OIL, XML, FLogic • Inference engine: OntoBroker SSSW 2003

  25. Tools for Ontological Engineering (3/3) • OntoSaurus • Ontology Server • Knowledge Representation Language based on DL: LOOM • Reasoning capabilities associated to LOOM • Ontology: SENSUS • Ontology Browser dinamically creates HTML pages • Edit the ontology • Display the ontology content • Translators • Ontolingua 1. Creation, edition and analysis of ontologies 2. Browsing and retrieval of ontologies 3. Assembly, customization, and extensions of ontologies 4. Translation of ontologies into typical application environments 5. Access to ontologies from remote applications (GFP) 6. Support for distributed, collaborative development of consensus ontologies SSSW 2003

  26. Conclusions • Relationships between the main methods and tools • Most of tools support ontology markup languages • Translation in other languages is also possible • A few correspondences bw methodologies and tools • Many “similar” tools, just focussing on onto building • Ontology merging is still not supported! • Ontology are developed manually • Automatic ontology acquisition is the next step! SSSW 2003

  27. References Summer School URL:http://minsky.dia.fi.upm.es/summerschool/index.html OntoWeb URL: www.ontoweb.org OntoRoadMap URL: http://babage .dia.fi .upm.es/ontoweb/wp1/OntoRoadMap/index.HTML Methodologies for building ontologies from the scratch • Cyc methodology URL: http://www.cyc.com • Uschold and King URL: Not available • Grüninger and Fox URL: Not available • KACTUS methodology URL: Not available • METHONTOLOGY URL: Not available • SENSUS methodology URL: Not available • On-To-Knowledge Methodology URL: http://www.ontoknowledge.org/ Methodologies for reengineering ontologies • Method for reengineering ontologies integrated in Methontology URL: Not available Methodologies for cooperative construction of ontologies • CO4 methodology URL: Not available • (KA)2 methodology URL: Not available SSSW 2003

  28. References Ontology learning methodologies • Aussenac-Gille's and colleagues methodology URL: http://www.biomath.jussieu.fr/TIA/ • Maedche and colleagues' methodology URL: Not available Ontology merge methodologies • FCA-merge URL: Not available • PROMPT URL: Not available • ONIONS URL: Not available Ontology evaluation methods • OntoClean: Guarino's group methodology URL: Not available • Gómez Pérez's evaluation methodology URL: Not available SSSW 2003

  29. References Environments for building ontologies • APECKS URL: Not available • Apollo URL: http://apollo.open.ac.uk • CODE4 URL: http://www.csi.uottawa.ca/~doug/CODE4.html • CO4 URL: http://co4.inrialpes.fr/ • DUET (DAML UML Enhanced Tool) URL: http://grcinet.grci.com/maria/www/CodipSite/Tools/Tools.html • GKB-Editor URL: http://www.ai.sri.com/~gkb/ • IKARUS URL: http://www.csi.uottawa.ca/~kavanagh/Ikarus/IkarusInfo.html • JOE (Java Ontology Editor) URL: http://www.engr.sc.edu/research/CIT/demos/java/joe/ • OilEd URL: http://img.cs.man.ac.uk/oil/ • OntoEdit URL: http://ontoserver .aifb.uni- karlsruhe.de/ontoedit / • Ontolingua URL: http://www-ksl-svc.stanford.edu:5915/ • Ontological Constraints Manager (OCM) URL: http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~yk1/rp956.ps • Ontology Editor by Steffen Schulze -Kremer URL: http://igd.rz-berlin.mpg.de/~www/prolog/oe.html • OntoSaurus URL: http://www.isi.edu/isd/ontosaurus.html • Protégé-2000 URL: http://protege.stanford.edu • VOID URL: http://www.swi.psy.uva.nl/projects/Kactus/toolkit/about.html • WebODE URL: http://delicias.dia.fi.upm.es/webODE/index.html • WebOnto URL: http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/webonto/ SSSW 2003

  30. References Ontology merging and integration tools • Chimaera URL: http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/software/chimaera/ • FCA-Merge Tool URL: Not available . • PROMPT URL: http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/prompt/prompt.html Ontology-based annotation tools • OntoMarkupAnnotation Tool URL: http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/akt / • OntoMat URL: http://ontobroker.semanticweb.org/annotation/ontomat/index.html • OntoAnnotate URL: http://www.ontoprise .de/com/co_produ_tool2.htm • SHOE Knowledge Annotator URL: http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/plus/SHOE/KnowledgeAnnotator.html • UBOT DAML Annotation URL: http://ubot.lockheedmartin.com/ubot/ Ontology learning tools • ASIUM URL: http://www.lri.fr/~faure/Demonstration.UK/Presentation_Demo.html • CORPORUM-OntoBuilder URL: http://ontoserver .cognit .no • LTG Text Processing Workbench URL: http://www.ltg.ed.ac.uk/%7Emikheev/workbench.html • Text-To-Onto URL: http://ontoserver .aifb.uni- karlsruhe.de/texttoonto/ SSSW 2003

  31. SSSW 2003