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  1. Europe Changes and Conflict

  2. New Ways of Thinking • Inventions • Thomas Edison: Light bulb and harnessing electricity • Alexander Graham Bell: Human voice on electrical circuit • Henry Ford, Karl Benz, Etienne Lenoir: Cars • Wilbur and Orville Wright: Airplane • New Thinkers • Charles Darwin: Theory of Evolution. Those who survive have the best natural characteristics to survive. • Gregor Mendel: Founded Genetics • Edward Jenner: small pox vaccine • Louis Pasteur: Pasteurization….found out that bacteria cause illness • Dmitry Mendeleyev: Classified Elements • Albert Einstein: German Scientist (physics)

  3. New Ways of Thinking • New Thinkers cont.. • Ivan Pavlov and Sigmund Freud: Psychology • Beethoven: German Composer • James Fennimore Cooper: American Writer • Sports • Became organized and popular during the 1800s. • Soccer and baseball were some of the earliest

  4. Economic Changes • Industrial Revolution • Rapid industrial development caused by available land and natural resources, available money to invest and available workers. • Mechanization: Automatic machines (silk spinning first) • Richard Arkwright: Use of water to power machine..started the first factory system. • Demand for cotton increased, England got most from the Southern United States (4 million to 100 million pounds per year) • Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney): machine that cleaned cotton, made it easier to mass produce it

  5. Economic Changes • Industrial Revolution • Water (river power) was unpredictable, tried to harness steam power (James Watt) • Bessemer Process: Process to inject air into pure Iron to remove impurities. This made steel easier to use. • Charles Goodyear: Vulcanization (made rubber less sticky) • Robert Fulton: Steam Engine on boat..changed water travel • Samuel Morse: Morse Code and Telegraph • Great Britain was the European leader in Industrialization • Factory System developed a wage system and Middle Class • Women also began to work more

  6. Econ Changes • Supply-Demand • Item is scarce and has high demand=high prices paid. When supply goes down, prices rise • Item is not scarce and has low demand=lower prices paid • Smith’s Theory: Manufacturers that compete with other companies must reduce prices to be competitive (but not too low or they will go out of business). • System of Free Enterprise (no government control) • Conditions: • Were bad for workers • Humanitarians: People who tried to help (Charles Dickens) • Strikes: effective way to protest working conditions • Unions: organizations created to protect the rights of workers

  7. Econ Changes • Capitalism • Economic system where individuals or corporations control what and how much gets produced (not govts) • Division of Labor: Economic principle that increased the rate of production….each person specialized in a certain job. • Eli Whitney invented interchangeable parts…machines that made things that were all alike…easier to fix • Mass Production: Producing large numbers of identical items. • Business began to become corporations (people could buy stock in them)

  8. Econ Changes • Socialism • Some people felt that the laissez-faire approach would not work (let it be) • Felt they need to change who owned the means of production • Means of Production: money and equipment used to produce and exchange goods (land, RR, mines, factories, stores, banks) • Definition: government owns the means of production and operates them for the benefit of all people, not just the wealthy. Everyone should share in the profits • Utopian Socialists: People who believed that people could live peacefully together in small communities where everyone would work for the common good of all

  9. Theories • Karl Marx • Wrote the Communist Manifesto (1848) • Thought that capitalism created a conflict between workers and business owners. His thoughts were that a few owners made a ton of money off the hard work of the workers. • Marx predicted that the workers would eventually unite and overthrow the capitalistic areas and create a socialist revolution. • Believed that people would learn the benefits of working together and a classless society would emerge..pure communism

  10. Theories • Communism • Government that owns the means of production and all economic planning (and all other aspects of daily life). • Democratic Socialism • People retain partial control over economic planning through the election of government officials • Marx’s Ideas • Had an important affect in parts of Northern and Western Europe. Huge impact in Russia

  11. Conflicts • WWI • Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, • Triple Alliance: Italy, Germany and Austria-Hungary (made by Bismarck during the 1880s) • Triple Entente: France, Russia, and GB • Serbs wanted Bosnia (Controlled by Austria) to be part of a Slavic Empire • Assassination of France Ferdinand (AH prince) by a Serbian nationalist set off the alliances. • Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire • Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Russia, and others

  12. Conflicts • WWI • U Boats • Propaganda • Trench Warfare • US Involvement (Lusitania and Zimmerman Note) • Eventually the Allies won due to American help and Austria/Hungary falling apart • Costs of WWI • 8.5-10 million dead, 21 million wounded, 300 Billion • 14 pts • Wilson’s attempt to make the world safe for democracy • League of Nations: A world organization to maintain peace…what the UN would become. Not strong after WWI • Treaty of Versailles: Punished Germany for actions in WWI and caused WWII. (No resolution of problems, Germany poor)

  13. Conflict • Great Depression • Black Tuesday: Oct 29, 1929, stock market crash • Market Speculation: Risky Investments • Great Depression: 30 million unemployed by 1932 • Major effect in GB, France, and Germany (destroy govt) • Great Britain Struggles • Struggle to find people jobs during 1920s-1930s • Irish nationals revolted in 1916 (Easter Rising) • IRA: Irish Republic Army. • Compromise: Catholic Southern Ireland (Republic of Ireland) would be independent, 6 Northern counties (Protestant) remained a part of the UK

  14. Problems • Eastern Europe • Most of Eastern European Countries were very weak • Austria, Poland, Hungary, etc • Italian Fascism • Benito Mussolini: Leader of fascist Italy • Fascism: Totalitarian dictatorship, opposed to democracies and communism (very much nationalistic) • Communism appealed to the workers, Fascism appealed to the middle/upper class because they were guaranteed to keep their power. Protect private property and middle class • Black Shirts: Mussolini’s military branch that eliminated all things socialist or democratic

  15. Conflicts • Germany • Nazis: Extreme Nationalism, anti-semitic (Jew) and anti-communist. Began around 1920 • Hitler’s views began to shape Nazi Party. • Through elections the Nazi’s were able to take gain a majority in the Reichstag (Parliament). Hitler became the emergency dictator when the Reichstag burnt down in 1933. • After that Hitler began to used the SS to round up Jews, forcing them to ghettos, work camps, and eventually concentration camps. • Hitler believed in the Third Reich (3rd Empire) • Began to rebuild the Army (illegal) and made a secret alliance with Italy

  16. New Problems • WWII: • Began with Hitler's Aggression • Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Scandinavia and Low Countries, USSR, France • Hitler was not able to fully capture USSR and never invaded Great Britain. • Allies: GB, France, USSR, USA • Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan • Hitler’s attack on the Soviet Union was similar to Napoleon’s failed attempt. Too big and cold. • Hitler began to kill the Jews in 1941. • Famous concentration camps like Auschwitz were built • D-Day: Allied Invasion of France….would mark the end for Hitler and the German Army

  17. World After WWII • United Nations • Created to keep peace throughout the world, don’t make the same mistakes that happened post WWI • Yalta Conference • Divided up Germany into 4 states (3 controlled by the West and 1 controlled by the USSR) • Cold War • Began after WWII. The Soviet Army never really left the lands that they had conquered between Germany and USSR. • Marshall Plan: US gave over 13 billion dollars to 17 Western European countries to prevent communism from spreading • Truman Doctrine: USA would support any country in their fight against communism (Greece and Turkey were first)

  18. World After WWII • Berlin Airlift • City of Berlin (in east Berlin) was divided by East and West. The Soviets shut off access to outside world • US and GB dropped food and supplies into West Berlin • Eventually the Berlin was created to prevent people moving from East to West. • NATO • Military Alliance of European countries..Warsaw Pact was the same thing except involving Soviets and the countries they controlled

  19. Great Britain • Prime Ministers • Neville Chamberlain • Winston Churchill (during WWII) • Economics • Struggled between welfare state and non welfare state • One of the least industrialized countries by 1960 • Major problems from the destruction of WWII

  20. France • Problems • Destroyed, much like Great Britain from fighting in WWII • Had trouble holding on to foreign possessions like Algeria and French Indochina (Vietnam) • Charles De Gaulle • French President after WWII. • Let go of possessions, believed in NATO, etc • Economy never got better and he resigned

  21. Other European Countries • Denmark, Norway, Sweden • All had solid democracies in place • All prospered in the times after WWII • Very little rebuilding occurred • Greece, Portugal, Spain • Turned to free-enterprise systems of economy • Portugal and Spain remained Authoritarian Govts

  22. Modern Times • Great Britain • Margaret Thatcher: Became the first female Prime Minister in Britain’s History • Reduced government funding of many social programs (like Republicanism) • Poll Tax: Replaced income tax, charged everyone the same…led to problems…she resigned in 1990 • John Major: More moderate, had many scandals • Tony Blair: Elected in 1997 • Northern Ireland (Protestant aligned with GB) • Battles between the Catholics (IRA) and Protestants • Wanted to drive the Protestants out of Ireland (unite) • Still an issue today

  23. Modern Times • France • Many different leaders (Pompidou, d’Estaing, Mitterand, Chirac) • Continued to struggle with economic problems and foreign relations. • Germany • West Germany became a major economic power while East Germany struggled • Helmut Kohl: Conservative (Reagan and Thatcher) kept close times with GB and USA • USSR collapsed and Germany was re-united as one country in 1992.

  24. Modern Times • NATO • United most of Western Europe (small countries) • Belgium, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Austria, Switzerland all were either supportive of Western ideas or neutral • Italy • Divided between political parties and industrial/wealthy Northern Italy vs poor/rural Southern Italy • Situation improved during the 1990s • Spain • Juan Carlos: King in 1975 • Troubles with economy during the 1970s and 80s • By 2000, Spain was in much better shape

  25. Modern Times • European Cooperation • Helsinki Accords: 35 European Nations (and USA/USSR) met to discuss security and cooperation among countries • Called on all nations to respect basic human rights, such as speech and worship…helped usher in democracy of the 1980’s • NATO: started to include Eastern European countries (Czech, Poland, Hungary) in 1997 • European Economic Community: Economic cooperation between countries to include common taxation, trade and currency • European Union: 1993, ended trade barriers between countries. Where the Euro came from (common currency)