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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) PowerPoint Presentation
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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

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  1. Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [CRL-UWB Consortium’s Optimized Soft-Spectrum UWB PHY Proposal Update for IEEE 802.15.3a] Date Submitted: [15 September, 2003] Source: [Ryuji Kohno, Honggang Zhang, Kenichi Takizawa] Company [ (1) Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), (2) CRL-UWB Consortium ] Connector’s Address [3-4, Hikarino-oka, Yokosuka, 239-0847, Japan] Voice:[+81-468-47-5101], FAX: [+81-468-47-5431], E-Mail:[kohno@crl.go.jp, honggang@crl.go.jp, takizawa@crl.go.jp ] Re: [IEEE P802.15 Alternative PHY Call For Proposals, IEEE P802.15-02/327r7] Abstract: [Recent optimization of CRL’s Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) are described after brief review of SSA. We perform various SSA schemes as cases with optimized kernel functions and pulse shaping, which are able to be introduced to implement either single-band or multiband systems. Moreover, various harmonization based on SSA are investigated considering co-existence, interference avoidance, matching with regulatory spectral mask, and high data rate.] Purpose: [For investigating the characteristics of High Rate Alternative PHY standard in 802.15TG3a, based on Soft-Spectrum Adaptation, pulse waveform shaping and Soft-Spectrum transceiver.] Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15. CRL-UWB Consortium

  2. Proposal Update: CRL-UWB Consortium’s Optimized Soft-Spectrum UWB PHY Proposal for IEEE 802.15.3a Ryuji KOHNO Director, UWB Technology Institute, CRL Professor, Yokohama National University Chair, CRL-UWB Consortium Honggang ZHANG Kenichi TAKIZAWA Communications Research Laboratory(CRL) & CRL-UWB Consortium CRL-UWB Consortium

  3. Major Contributors For This Proposal Update Ryuji KOHNO Shinsuke HARA Shigenobu SASAKI Tetsuya YASUI Honggang ZHANG Kamya Y. YAZDANDOOST Kenichi TAKIZAWA Yuko RIKUTA Yokohama National University Osaka University Niigata University CRL-UWB Consortium CRL-UWB Consortium CRL-UWB Consortium CRL-UWB Consortium CRL-UWB Consortium CRL-UWB Consortium

  4. CRL-UWB Consortium • ● Organization  • UWB Technology Institute of CRL and associated • over 30 Manufacturers and Academia. • ● Aim  • ■R&D and regulation of UWB wireless systems. • ■Channel measurement and modeling with experimental • analysis of UWB system test-bed in band (960MHz, • 3.1- 10.6GHz, 22-29GHz,and over 60GHz). • ■R&D of low cost module with higher data rate over • 100Mbps. • ■Contribution in standardization with ARIB, MMAC,      and MPHPT in Japan. CRL-UWB Consortium

  5. CRL-UWB Consortium

  6. Major Members of CRL-UWB Consortium Takahiro YAMAGUCHI Advantest Corporation Tasuku TESHIROGI Anritsu Corporation Hideaki ISHIDA CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. Hiroyo OGAWA Communications Research Laboratory Toshiaki MATSUI Communications Research Laboratory Akifumi KASAMATSU Communications Research Laboratory Tomohiro INAYAMA Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. Toshiaki SAKANE Fujitsu Limited Yoichi ISO Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. Yoshinori OHKAWA Hitachi Cable, Ltd. Yoshinori ISHIKAWA Hitachi Communication Technologies, Ltd. Masatoshi TAKADA Hitachi Kokusai Electric Inc. Satoshi SUGINO Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. Makoto SANYA Matsushita Electric IndustrialCo., Ltd. Tetsushi IKEGAMI Meiji University CRL-UWB Consortium

  7. Major Members of CRL-UWB Consortium (cont.) Yoshiaki KURAISHI NEC Engineering, Ltd. Makoto YOSHIKAWA NTT Advanced Technology Corporation Yoshihito SHIMAZAKI Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. Masami HAGIOOki Network LSI Co., Ltd. Toru YOKOYAMAOMRON Corporation Hiroyuki NAGASAKA Samsung Yokohama Research Institute Sumio HANAFUSA       SANYO Electric Co., Ltd. Makoto ITAMI Science University of Tokyo Hideyo IIDA Taiyo Yuden Co., Ltd. Eishin NAKAGAWA Telecom Engineering Center Takehiko KOBAYASHI Tokyo Denki University Kiyomichi ARAKI Tokyo Institute of Technology Jun-ichi TAKADATokyo Institute of Technology CRL-UWB Consortium

  8. Outline of Presentation Summary of perviousSoft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA)proposals of CRL-UWB Consortium Optimized Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) 2.1 Optimized pulse shaping for SSA 2.2 Optimized modulation scheme 2.3 Channel coding and decoding 2.4 Realization of SSA transceiver 2.5 Applicable antennas 2.6 Pre-equalization for pulse shape calibration 2.7 Link budget estimation Harmonization based on SSA with SXI and MBOA UWB systems 3.1 Harmonization with XSI’s DS-UWB proposal 3.2 Harmonization with MBOA’s proposal Concluding remarks and Backup materials CRL-UWB Consortium

  9. Summary of • Previous CRL-UWB Consortium’s Proposal • on Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) UWB • for IEEE802.15.3a WPANs CRL-UWB Consortium

  10. 1.1 What is Soft-Spectrum Adaptation UWB ? Basic Philosophy  Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) • Design a proper pulse waveform with high frequency efficiency corresponding to any frequency mask. • Adjust transmitted signal’s spectra in flexible so as to minimize interference with coexisting systems. Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) CRL-UWB Consortium

  11. Basic Formulation Example of Pulse Generator Synthesize a proper pulse waveform In case of multiband, a kernel function is a sinusoidal function. In case of impulse radio, a kernel function is a Gaussian, Hermitian pulse function etc. Feasible Solution: Pulse design satisfying Spectrum Mask • Divide (spread-and-shrink ) the whole bandwidth into several sub-bands Soft Spectrum (spectrum matching) • Pulse synthesized by several pulses that have different spectra  Soft Spectrum, M-ary signaling N division CRL-UWB Consortium

  12. 5 GHz W-LAN Power  Spectrum 1 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 2 3 7 f [GHz] N division N+α division Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) with Flexible Band Plan Single-band Dual- or Triple-band Multi-band In the future, if the restricting ruggedness of regional spectral mask (e.g. FCC mask) is eased, band allocation can be extended below 3.1 GHz or above 10.6 GHz. Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) can correspond freely CRL-UWB Consortium

  13. 1.2 Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) Classification Free-Verse Type of SSA  A kernel function is non-sinusoidal, e.g. Gaussian, Hermitian pulse etc.  Single band, Impulse radio (2) Geometrical Type of SSA  A kernel function is sinusoidal with different frequency.  Multiband with carriers and Multi-carrier CRL-UWB Consortium

  14. Free-verse Type Soft-Spectrum Adaptation •  Freely design pulse waveforms by synthesizing pulses,e.g. overlapping and shifting 2.4GHz 5.2GHz time frequency K-3 Free-verse Soft-Spectrum Adaptation pulse (Note: band notches clearly happen at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz as well) time frequency K-4 Free-verse Soft-Spectrum Adaptation pulse (Note: pulse waveform has more freedom) CRL-UWB Consortium

  15. Order 0 to 3 Order 0 to 3 Time [nsec] Frequency [GHz] Order 4 to 7 Order 4 to 7 Frequency [GHz] Time [nsec] Modified Hermitian : Free-verse Soft-Spectrum Adaptation pulse (Note: These pulses are mutually orthogonal) CRL-UWB Consortium

  16. 1 0.8 1 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.4 0 0.2 -0.2 0 -0.4 -0.2 -0.6 -0.4 -0.8 -0.6 1 0.8 0.6 Triangular-type envelope Exponential-type envelope 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.6 0 0.4 0.2 -0.2 0 -0.4 -0.2 -0.6 -0.4 -0.8 -0.6 Cosine-type envelope Gaussian-type envelope -0.8 (2) Geometrical Type Soft-Spectrum Adaptation  Freely design pulse waveforms using various geometrical type envelopes CRL-UWB Consortium

  17. Global Coexistence with other Potential Interferences • Multiband/OFDM: Only (b) is available • SSA: Both (a) and (b) are available (a) Use of frequency band having low emission limit, but the same pulse energy is available by using wider bandwidth. (b) Simply eliminate the band if other services exist. • If more potential interferer should be considered, (b) does not work because it simply reduce the signal energy. • Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) approach provides more option to overcome future potential coexistence issue. CRL-UWB Consortium

  18. 1.3 Advantages of Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) • Soft-Spectrum Adaptation(SSA) can adapt signal spectra to any spectral requirement by flexible pulse waveform shaping similar to Software Defined Radio (SDR). 1. Global regulation satisfaction:SSA can flexibly adjust UWB signal spectrum so as to match with spectral restriction in transmission power, i.e. spectrum masks. 2. Interference avoidance for co-existence: SSA can adaptively avoid interference from and to co-existing systems in the same band and maximize spectral efficiency. 3. Harmonization for various proposed systems: SSA is good for harmonization among different UWB systems because SSA includes various proposed UWB systems as its special case, e.g.  XSI’s DS-CDMA as a case of Free-verse type SSA  MBOA’s MB-OFDM as a case of Geometrical type SSA 4. Future system version-up:SSA is so scalable as to accept future UWB systems with better performance like SDR. CRL-UWB Consortium

  19. Kernel functions ST Microelectronics SSA type Adaptive Mitsubishi Free- verse Gaussian Single-band Optimized SSA Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) Global standard Modulated modified Hermitian Dual-band XSI TF Hopping XSI Wavelet Multiband with carrier Geo- metrical Intel, Wisair TF Coding MB-OFDM GA, Philips Sinusoidal OFDM Multi-carrier TI Harmonization Based on Soft-Spectrum Adaptation CRL-UWB Consortium

  20. Outline of Presentation Summary of pervious Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) proposals of CRL-UWB Consortium Optimized Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) 2.1 Optimized pulse shaping for SSA 2.2 Optimized modulation scheme 2.3 Channel coding and decoding 2.4 Realization of SSA transceiver 2.5 Applicable antennas 2.6 Pre-equalization for pulse shape calibration 2.7 Link budget estimation Harmonization based on SSA with SXI and MBOA UWB systems 3.1 Harmonization with XSI’s DS-UWB proposal 3.2 Harmonization with MBOA’s proposal Concluding remarks and Backup materials CRL-UWB Consortium

  21. 2.1. Optimized Pulse Shaping for SSA Low peak Optimized pulse shape • Mutually orthogonal • Available to • Pulse shape multiple access • Pulse shape modulation • Available notches • In order to reduce narrowband interferences • Non-spiky in both time and frequency domain Free-verse Type + Geometrical Type (Envelope) (Pulsed Sine) Ex.: Modified Hermitian Pulsed Sinusoidal Wavelets Pulse width and center frequency is adaptively changeable. Time [nsec] notches Frequency [GHz] CRL-UWB Consortium

  22. Not slected Pulse shape orthogonality can be employed to 1) user / piconet multiple access and/or 2) multilevel (M-ary) data modulation 1) Pulse shape multiple access 2) Pulse shape modulation • Orthogonality is applied to identify user/piconet • for multiple access • Orthogonality is applied to increase level of M-ary • data modulation for multilevel data transmission. Piconet A 00 01 Piconet B 10 Piconet C 11 Piconet D Interference reduction Not use • Narrowband interferences is reduced by appropriate selection of pulse-shapes. Not use Not use Narrowband interferences Frequency [GHz] Frequency [GHz] CRL-UWB Consortium

  23. 2.2 Optimized Modulation scheme M-ary bi-orthogonal keying (M-ary BOK) • Walsh-Hadamard (WH) codes with length 8 • 2 WH codes are assigned to each piconet. • 4-ary BOK encodes 2 bits by using the assigned 2 WH codes Pulse shape modulation • Simple mapping: Information binary bits are mapped into pulse shapes • Pulse shape keying: Information binary bits are mapped into permutation of pulse shapes M-ary PSM can transmit log2Mbits/pulse. 00 01 10 11 M-ary pulse shape keying can transmit floor(log2(M !)) bits/pulse. 0000 ・・・・ 1111 CRL-UWB Consortium

  24. Supported bit rates with SSA *1: In 200 and 480 Mbps, Pulse shape Keying is applied. *2: Pulse repetition interval: PRI *3: K=3 convolutional code CRL-UWB Consortium

  25. Combined Iterative demapping/decoding (CIDD) • The structure of coded UWB systems can be viewed as serially concatenation code • Based on this viewpoint, iterative decoding strategy is available • CIDD is available to any UWB systems including XSI’s DS-UWB and MBOA’s MB-OFDM systems Serially concatenation FEC encoder M-ary pulse mapper (MBOK+PSM, MBOK, OFDM, …) interleaver M-ary Pulse demapper FEC decoder deinterleaver interleaver Iterative decoding 2.3. Channel Coding and Decoding CRL-UWB Consortium

  26. Performance of CIDD • 4-ary BOK and 4-ary PSM (125Mbps) • K=3 convolutional coding • Random bit-wise interleaver • Interleaver length is 512 bits • Single user and AWGN channel gain CIDD provides the best BER performance ! Complexity of CIDD*1 • K=3 complexity is 1/8 less than K=7 • M-ary pulse shape demapper complexity is 1/10 less than K=7 CIDD is less complexity than turbo and K=7 convolutional decoder. *1: P.H.Y. Wu, “On the complexity of turbo decoding algorithm, ” Proc. of IEEE VTC’01-Spring, vol.2, pp.1439-1443, May 2001. Less complexity CRL-UWB Consortium

  27. LNA X X X X X X 2.4. Realization of Soft-Spectrum AdaptationTransceiver Base Band Processor A/D GCA GCA Freq. Hopping Synthesizer (LO Sin Demod.) T/R SW X X Output Driver Free-verse Template Generator • Detector of the SSA transceiver consists of mixer with local sine generator and correlator with template, in sequence. • Both free-verse type and geometrical type pulses can be detected by this SSA transceiver. • That’s why we call this receiving architecture as a universal detector. CRL-UWB Consortium

  28. 5 GHz W-LAN Power  Spectrum 1 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 2 3 7 f [GHz] N division 2.5. Applicable Antennas • Two types of novel antenna for UWB systems are designed. Type A --- Novel ultra-wideband antenna which covers almost whole frequency ranges Type B --- Novel wideband antenna with dual frequency which has dual resonant frequency with wide bandwidth • Both antennas can be applied to any band segmentations, such as single-, dual- and multi-bands. Single-band Dual- or Triple-band Multi-band CRL-UWB Consortium

  29. Patch Patch Patch Patch Substrate Antenna Design • Type A: Novel ultra-wideband antenna Bow-tie printed antenna --- covers the required bandwidth for UWB system • Type B: Novel wideband antenna with dual frequency Planar monopole antenna --- divides UWB frequency band into 2 sub-bands Type A Type B Feed CRL-UWB Consortium

  30. 0 -5 -10 Return Loss [dB] -15 -20 -25 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Frequency [GHz] 5 4 3 Gain [dBi] 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Frequency [GHz] Antenna Characteristics (Type A): Novel Ultra-Wideband Antenna 6 Return Loss < -6dB 5 4 VSWR < 3 VSWR 3 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Frequency [GHz] 0 0 330 30 330 30 300 60 300 60 90 90 270 270 240 120 240 120 Gain > 2dBi 210 150 210 150 180 180 < 9.1GHz > < 3.1GHz > Radiation pattern (vertical plane, f=90) Omni-directional pattern • Satisfying the antenna requirement of IEEE 802.15 TG3a (WPANs) CRL-UWB Consortium

  31. 0 -5 -10 Return Loss [dB] -15 -20 -25 -30 2 4 6 8 10 12 Frequency [GHz] Antenna Characteristics (Type B): Novel Wideband Antenna with Dual Frequency Suppress the interference where other services exist. Omni-directional pattern can be obtained. • Suitable for Soft-Spectrum Adaptation (SSA) applications. CRL-UWB Consortium

  32. X Y channel antenna antenna C Ar At Pulse shape in both time and frequency domain is strongly affected by Tx and Rx antennas and channel characteristics. Xpre Xpost X Y antenna channel antenna post-equalizer pre-equalizer At C Ar Xpost=YC-1 Ar-1 Xpre=X At-1 2.6. Pre-equalization for Pulse Shape Calibration Pre-equalizer calibrates the pulse shape by pre-distortion Efforts for pulse design is rewarded ! CRL-UWB Consortium

  33. 2.7. Link Budget Assumption: AWGN, 0dBi TX/RX antenna gain CRL-UWB Consortium

  34. Comparison with other SSA systems Assumption: AWGN, 0dBi TX/RX antenna gain CRL-UWB Consortium

  35. 3. Harmonization Based on SSA with XSI and MBOA UWB Systems • Global Harmonization is the everlasting aim and basic philosophy of CRL-UWB Consortium. • CRL’s Soft-Spectrum Adaptation has a wide capability to harmonize various proposed UWB systems including XSI’s and MBOA’s proposals. • Just changing the kernel functions and shapes of Soft-Spectrum Adaptation pulse waveforms. CRL-UWB Consortium

  36. 3.1. Harmonization with XSI’s DS-UWB Proposal Ex.: Modulated Hermitian pulses Ex.: Modulated order-0 modified Hermitian pulse Low band Low band High band High band Time [nsec] CRL-UWB Consortium

  37. CRL-UWB Consortium

  38. High Band Symbol Rates and Link Budget Green: XSI’s proposal powered by SSA Blue: XSI’s original proposal Red: Optimized SSA Txpow=-6.9 dBm; Coded Eb/No=9.6 dB, 3 dB implementation loss, 0 dB RAKE gain, NF=5.1 dB Required Eb/N0:half rate conv + 16-BOK: 3.2dB, half rate conv + 4-BOK: 6.1dB, 2/3 rate conv.+8-BOK: 4.2dB Note that: In the link budgets of the optimized SSA, NF is set to 7dB. CRL-UWB Consortium

  39. Low Band Symbol Rates and Link Budget Green: XSI’s proposal powered by SSA Blue: XSI’s original proposal Red: Optimized SSA Txpow=-9.9 dBm; Coded Eb/No=9.6 dB, 3 dB implementation loss, 0 dB RAKE gain, NF=4.2 dB Required Eb/N0:half rate conv + 16-BOK: 3.2dB, half rate conv + 4-BOK: 6.1dB Note that: In the link budgets of the optimized SSA, NF is set to 7dB. CRL-UWB Consortium

  40. 3.2. Harmonization with MBOA’s Proposal MBOA’s Multiband OFDM 2bit IDFT FEC coding Interleaver S/P QPSK mapping X S 100bits GI QPSK mapping X X ・・・・・ T-H code QPSK mapping X ・・・ CRL-UWB Consortium

  41. SSA Inner encoder 1bit S/P S PSM mapping X FEC coding Interleaver X 100bits GI X ・・・ ・・・ T-H code X SSA Outer encoder Harmonization with MBOA’s OFDM Proposal (Cont.) CRL’s MB-OFDM based on SSA ・・・ CRL-UWB Consortium

  42. Comparison of MBOA’s and SSA’s Link Budget CRL’s Optimized SSA MBOA’s OFDM CRL-UWB Consortium

  43. 4. Concluding Remarks CRL’s SSA has been optimized and will be able to be modified in future. CRL’s SSA approach provides more options and flexibility to achieve co-existence, interference avoidance, matching with regulatory spectral mask, and high data rate. CRL’s SSA has a superior capability to harmonize various proposed UWB systems: XSI’s, MBOA’s and others. That’s why SSA is the best solution for the standard! CRL-UWB Consortium

  44. Backup Materials CRL-UWB Consortium

  45. Pulse pre-equalization taking into account different kinds of UWB antennas and filters (1) • Transient transmission model based on antenna’s transfer function : transient response of transmitter antenna & filter : transmitter voltage of input pulse signal : free space impedance : reference impedance at the antenna connector :Group delay of antenna’s transfer function • Radiated pulse waveforms and their corresponding spectra would be inevitably changed by the antenna’s transfer function, and FCC spectral mask may no longer be satisfied as ever. CRL-UWB Consortium

  46. Pulse pre-equalization taking into account different kinds of UWB antennas and filters (2) • Pulse-antenna co-design based on pre-equalization, so as to realize FCC spectral mask matching and waveform optimization. • Pulse pre-equalization can compensate this deterioration, even in the case of serious pulse waveform distortion. • Pre-equalizer could be adaptively re-designed by software approach, corresponding to arbitrary input pulse waveforms, antenna types, angle of incidence, load impedance, polarization, and TR matching/shaping networks. • Pre-equalizer could be further extended to consider the multipath fading channel, including pre-combining LOS and NLOS multipath components of variable amplitudes and possible polarity reversals. CRL-UWB Consortium

  47. Geometrical Rx AFE:112mW GCA Base Band Processor I LNA X X A/D GCA GCA I GCA X X A/D Q GCA GCA Q Freq. Hopping Synthesizer T/R SW I X X I • Multi-band OFDM RF: 27 mW PLL: 50 mW ADC: 35 mW + AGC Q p cos ( 2 f t ) c X X Output Driver Q Pre-Select I Filter LPF VGA ADC LNA Remove CP Remove Pilots FFT FEQ De- De- Decoder Synchronization scrambler Viterbi Interleaver Data Q LPF VGA ADC p sin ( 2 f t ) c Carrier Power consumption (Receiver) Phase AFE:187mW and Time Tracking Output CRL-UWB Consortium

  48. GCA LNA GCA RF: 15 mW PLL: 50 mW • Geometrical Tx Base Band Processor I X X A/D GCA GCA I X X A/D Q GCA GCA Q Freq. Hopping Synthesizer T/R SW I X X I + Q X X Output Driver Q AFE:65mW AFE:160mW • Multi-band OFDM IFFT Constellation Input Convolutional Bit DAC Puncturer Insert Pilots Scrambler Mapping Data Encoder Interleaver Add CP & GI p cos ( 2 f t ) c Power consumption (Transmitter) Time Frequency Code CRL-UWB Consortium