Bakeshop Ingredients:It’s About Science Common Bakeshop Ingredients What do we want kids to know?
Common Ingredients • Flours, Meals and Starches • Fats / Shortenings • Sugars • Liquids • Eggs • Leavening Agents • Salt, Flavorings and Spices
The Function of Flour • Provides structure to our products. • Absorbs Liquids and Binds ingredients • Contributes Flavor and Color • Nutritional value
Active Learning • Get students into small groups and ask them to list as many different flours as they can. • What makes them different? • A discussion about protein content and gluten will be inevitable.
Experiment: Different Flours • To learn about flour differences, make a yeasted dough-from different types of flours. A lean dough works as a nice control product, having just flour, water and salt. This provides a great format to learn about the properties of flours, even the ones we would never use in a lean dough formula. • Demonstrate: • Height • Crispness and browning of the crust. • Crumb color and structure • Overall flavor, texture and appeal of the product.
Lean Yeast Rolls • Bread Flour (control product) • High Gluten flour • Pastry flour • Cake flour • Whole Wheat flour • Artisan Bread flour (lower protein)
Method • Preheat oven to 425 • Proof box at 85 degrees and 85% humidity • Scale an extra 5 ounces, 140g water and set aside. • Use Straight Dough method to mix, mixing on low speed for 1 minute to combine, then 5 minutes to develop the dough. • Add and record any additional water from step 3 needed to adjust for consistency. • Remove from mixer; cover loosely and label flour type.
Procedure • Place dough in proof box and bulk ferment for about 45 minutes or until doubled in bulk. • Punch dough down to distribute carbon dioxide. • Divide each batch into 2 ounce (60g) pieces and round into rolls. • Lightly spray or grease muffin pans and place rolls in pans, labeling each batch. • Proof an additional 15 minutes or until control product has nearly doubled and is light, airy to the touch.
Procedure continued • Record oven temperature with thermometer and confirm 425 degree temperature. • Place rolls into oven. • Bake rolls until the control product is properly baked • Remove all rolls from the oven at this time, despite some being paler in color or not having risen as much. • Record baking time, record final oven temperature. • Remove rolls from hot pans and allow to cool.
Results • Evaluate the products now, noting the variations in end products. • Height: slice 3 rolls and measure across to get average height of each batch. • Evaluate and record the sensory characteristics as stated: Crispness, Browning and Crust, Crumb color and structure, Flavor, Texture and Appeal of product.
Conclusions • Examples: • Rolls made from pastry flour were shorter in height as those made with bread flour. • Rolls made with Cake flour were paler as those made with Bread flour. • Rolls made with high gluten flour were tougher than those made with bread flour. • Have students discuss why these results might have occurred.
The Function of Sugars • To add sweetness and flavor. • To create tenderness and fineness of texture by weakening gluten structure. • To give color to crusts. • To increase keeping qualities by retaining moisture, all sugars are hygroscopic. • To assist in leavening when creamed with fats • Stabilizing Whipped Egg Foams • Provides Food for Yeast Fermentation • An invert sugar
Experiment: Sensory • Display the various sugars and sweeteners we would find in the bake shop. • Granulated sugars: Regular, Coarse, Pearl, Confectioner’s, Cane or Beet sugars, etc. • Brown sugar: Light, Dark, Muscovado • Syrups: Glucose, Molasses, Honey, Maple syrup, Agave syrup • Splenda and other substitutes
Sensory Evaluation Examples: • Coarse sugar dissolves on the palate more slowly than regular granulated sugar, primarily because of the larger crystals. • Glucose syrup was sweeter than granulated sugar. • Compare the flavor of light brown to dark brown sugars.
Experiment: Hygroscopic? • Simply place 3-4 ounces of egg yolks into a bowl. Add sugar to the bowl but do not mix the two together. Because sugars are hygroscopic, they will draw the moisture out of the yolk (50% water) causing the yolks to gel, and giving it a “cooked” looked. The sugar then forms hard crystals, thus making the mixture impossible to combine into a smooth mixture to use.
Promoting Cookie Spread Sugar, once dissolved, promotes the spread in cookies. Sugar pulls moisture from starches and proteins as it dissolves, turning the dough into a sugar “syrup”. Sugar delays coagulation of protein and gelatinization of starches. This causes the cookie to spread across the sheet pan as it warms until the proteins coagulate and structure is set. The more sugar in a cookie dough, the more spread. Finer granulation will cause even more spread because they dissolve quicker, thus thinning the dough. Confectioner’s sugar being the exception, due to cornstarch, preventing spread.
Experiment: Spread in Cookies • Simply replace various grinds and types of sugars in a standard cookie formula. Use the original formula as a control product and record more or less spread in the various batches. • Shortbread cookies would be a good choice as a control product with so few ingredients, sugar a key element.
Method • Creaming method. • Various makeup • Bake 350 degrees approximately 15 minutes.
Conclusions • Examples: • Cookies made with Ultra Fine sugar spread far more than the cookies made using regular granulated sugar. • The cookies made with Confectioner’s sugar had far less spread than the one’s made with Regular granulated sugar. • The cookies made with Coarse sugar had a sweeter taste than cookies made with Confectioner’s sugar. • The cookies made with brown sugar had a softer texture than those made with the coarse sugar.
Eggs • Provide structure • Aerating / Leavening • Emulsifying • Shortening action • Moisture • Contributing flavor and color. • Nutritional value; complete protein
Experiment: Eggs • To understand how egg selection effects the overall quality of muffins. • Demonstrate how the type of egg affects • Crust color • Crumb color • Moistness, tenderness and height • Overall flavor • Overall appeal of muffins
Muffins with • Whole egg (control product) • No egg (with additional water 75%, oil 10%, and milk solids 15% to replace eggs • Egg white • Egg yolk • Liquid whole egg substitute (Egg Beaters, etc.)
Muffin Method • Preheat oven to 400 degrees • Sift dry ingredients into bowl • Melt butter, cool slightly • Whisk egg lightly; blend in milk and melted butter • Pour liquids into dry ingredients and mix just until moistened. Batter will look lumpy.
Method with no egg • Sift in 1 ounce (28 g) dried milk with dry ingredients • Add .5 ounce (14 g) oil and 4.5 ounce (128 g) water into liquid ingredients
Procedure • Prepare pans, label pans with type of egg to be added. • Use a #16 scoop to fill ¾ full. • Record oven temperature and when correct, place muffins into oven. • Bake 20-22 minutes, until control product springs back when center is touched lightly, or pick inserted in center comes out clean. Control product should be lightly browned. • Remove all muffins at this time. Remove from pans and allow to cool.
Evaluate • Shape of muffins (even rounded top, peaked top, dips in center, etc.) • Evaluate sensory characteristics. • Crust color • Crumb appearance, color (cell structure, uniformity, tunnels, etc.) • Flavor (egg flavor, floury, saltiness, sweetness, etc.) • Overall appeal and any additional comments
Conclusions • Examples: • The muffins with the lowest amount of browning were without eggs. • The most tender muffins were made with whole egg. • The muffins that were most moist were baked with egg white. • Then challenge students to give possible reasons why these came about