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Settlement and Colonization

Settlement and Colonization. Life after Champlain. Overview. European countries are trying to extend their power in the new continent The English and Dutch had colonies on the Atlantic coast, and challenged France and Spain in the Caribbean.

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Settlement and Colonization

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  1. Settlement and Colonization Life after Champlain

  2. Overview • European countries are trying to extend their power in the new continent • The English and Dutch had colonies on the Atlantic coast, and challenged France and Spain in the Caribbean. • By 1660, England controlled 13 colonies, which were growing rapidly, below the land claimed by the French. • The French, through the Company of Hundred Associates, were bringing settlers to Canada and trying to replicate the French system of seigneuries (feudal-style manors) in Canada.

  3. England’s Thirteen Colonies

  4. New France

  5. Problem with Seigneuries • The Company of 100 Associates wasn’t in the farming business; they were in the fur business. • By mapping out these seigneuries in Acadia and along the St. Lawrence river, and appointing Seigneures to bring in their own settlers, they thought the problem was solved. • Why might that not be the case? • Despite their best efforts, the Company lost their monopoly in 1660, and eventually went bankrupt.

  6. What exactly is the Seigneurial System • A land-share system introduced in New France in 1629 by the Cardinal de Richelieu. • Inspired by feudalism, the Seigneurial system entrusted the development and populating of an estate to an individual, noble or commoner, or to a religious community. • Called a seigneurie, this estate belonged to the seigneur who was required to deed it back if he did not ensure its proper exploitation. • To meet his commitment, the seigneur hired and paid individuals capable of supporting him in the building of his house, the mill and the fort. • Hired labourerslived in his house or in another until they became eligible for an allocation of land (censitaires) • Because they shared the day-to-day life of their censitaires, most seigneurs adopted a humane attitude when it came to payments due from the censitaire.

  7. Jesuits: “The Black Robes” • An order of Roman Catholic priests, partnered with the Company of 100 Associates • Sponsored by Cardinal Richelieu; they were charged with spreading “the knowledge of the true God [and]… be civilized and instructed in the Catholic faith. “ • What would make the Jesuits more successful than the other orders who had failed to convert?

  8. The Jesuits were successful because they were prepared to make any sacrifice necessary. • They travelled far inland; they were permitted to live with native groups because they adopted some of their customs and traditions. • The Hurons, especially, were tolerant of these men, but unwilling to completely give up their cultural and religious beliefs. • Jesuits undertook the daunting task of learning the Natives languages, which was extremely challenging. • What issues could occur once they started having success with the Natives?

  9. The Jesuits tried to remain politically neutral with the Natives. • This proved difficult because those who had converted often were given special privileges in the fur trade. They would live near the missions, and some joined the Church. • This faction between converts and “infidels” weakened the Huron nation and made it vulnerable to attacks.

  10. The Coureurs de Bois (Runners of the Wood) • Who were the Coureurs? • Independent traders of the Fur companies • Rules put in place by the monopoly were easy to bend. • The Iroquois had all but stopped the Algonkians and other groups from bringing their furs to the posts. • The Coureurs went out to the source. • They bribed and paid fees for officials to look the other way. • Traveling in birch bark canoes they started the fur brigades which would opened up the west into the trade. • The great lakes were central to the success of the Courers because they could travel great distances. • Often married into Native families to improve trust and friendships; which improved their ability to trade.

  11. Radisson and Groseilliers • Des Groseilliers born in France, but came to New france to work in 1642. Worked for the Jesuit priests at their mission close to Georgian Bay. Became a coureur de bois. • His first accomplishment was his expedition through the wilderness that ended at the Great Lakes. • There he met Huron peoples and he was able establish a trading partnership with them • Radisson was born in France but moved to TroisRivieres in 1651. • The Iroquois captured him when he was 15. He lived with them for two years and learned how to live in the wilderness. • When he returned home, he became partners in the fur trade with his sister's husband, MédardChouart des Groseilliers.

  12. Radisson and Groseilliers • In 1659 Radisson and Des Groseilliers set off on a secret trip in search of new sources of fur. • They headed north of Lake Superior, which was land that had not yet been explored by the white man. There they met Wendat and Odawa people who were ready to trade with them. • When they returned home they had over 100 canoes loaded with furs. Radisson and Des Groseilliers had not obtained a fur-trading license so they were fined and the fur was taken away from them. They were angry and decided to work for the English instead. • In 1665 Radisson and Des Groseilliers went to London, England to visit King Charles II. Arriving at the meeting dressed up as First Nation fur traders. They told exaggerated stories of life in the wilderness and the fur trade. While the King did not believe everything they told him, he was interested. 5. The expedition went well enough that the King agreed to grant Hudson's Bay Company a charter. Radisson and Des Groseilliers continue with the company until 1674, when they switched back to the French side. 6. Radisson spent the next seven years outwitting the English and taking their furs. The French authorities had not learned their lesson, however: in 1683, they again confiscated Radisson and Des Groseilliers ' ships and 25% of their furs. This was too much for Radisson. He returned to the English, and worked for Hudson's Bay Company until his death.

  13. Royal province of New France • After 1635 (Champlain deceased and 100 Associates failed); the Iroquois wrestled control of Fur trade from the Huron, set higher prices and cut French profits. • 1661, an appeal from the small settlement in New France was met with approval from Louis XIV and his minister of the marine, Jean-Baptist Colbert. • They were determined to make the colony strong and profitable.

  14. Mercantilism and Colonialism • To be stronger, Canada needed to become a part of the French mercantile empire. • Page 237 • Mercantilism: there is a certain amount of wealth in the world, and it is in the best interest of a nation to accumulate as much as possible. • Accumulate wealth= accumulate power • Wealth accumulation => export more than you import and sold at a profit • Spent little on raw goods, sell a high priced finished good. • Canada was ripe for the job of raw materials. • The colony would exist for the benefit of the home country. • Colonies can only sell to their home country.

  15. Examples of the Triangle Trade Routes between Europe and colonies These are examples from England, but are very similar to France

  16. Helping the colony • France sent a regiment of professional soldiers. • 1,100 soldiers almost doubled the current population. • They attacked and burned Iroquois villages until the natives asked for peace. • Both parties got what they wanted • French: expanding fur trade west on their own • Iroquois: devote energy to expanding their territory elsewhere.

  17. New France: A royal colony • 1663, New France is officially a colony of the French Crown • Things that changed with this title • Governor appointed; represent King, establish treaties, and defense • Chief administrator (intendant) deals with people • Bishop: religion • These three made up the Sovereign Council, the government of New France.

  18. Different plans of attack • Champlain • Wanted Natives and French traders to marry and make one nation • France (ie. King) • Wanted colony to be a copy of France • Ensure that colony’s aristrocrats would have control of the land and same rights as in France. • RESULT: • a colony slowly taken over by a large population of French peasants

  19. Introducing, Jean Talon (good guy) • New France’s First intendant • Ensured the colony had: settlers, defense, basic industries. • Realized that the colony was missing something: WOMEN!!! • Recruits women by looking at those who had the least to gain by staying in France (who might those be?) • He brought over hundreds of young women in ten years to start new lives in Canada, known as les filles du roi

  20. Talon and industry • Knowing the role of a colony in the mercantile system, Talon established in Canada • Lumber mill • Tannery • Brewery • All which did not compete with French industry, but made life easier in the colony and helped trade within the empire.

  21. Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau (but youcan call him Frontenac) • Frontenac was New France’s first governor. • He took the job to escape creditors in France • (probs didn’t put that on the resume) • In New France he • Fought with the church • Tried to expand the frontiers by sending out coureurs to look for more furs • Disliked Jesuits who were “harming the fur trade by limiting the use of alcohol in exchanges”

  22. Frontenac “power moves” • Asks the Iroquois to meet with him; to create a business alliance • Meanwhile, builds forts against their attacks • Iroquois have wizened up, they agree to nothing until Frontenac agreed to not allow further French expansion • His policy of encouraging the coureurs to travel well beyond their present borders was too suspicious to the Iroquois. • 1682, Frontenac was recalled to France. Only to be sent back several years later to campaign again against the Iroquois.

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