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## History of Computing – Founders re. PLs

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**History of Computing – Founders re. PLs**Prof. Steven A. Demurjian Computer Science & Engineering Department The University of Connecticut 371 Fairfield Way, Box U-255 Storrs, CT 06269-3255 Steven.Demurjian@uconn.edu http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~steve (860) 486–4818 (Office) (860) 486-3719 (CSE Office)**Highlighting Contributions of Founders**• Pioneers of Computing • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pioneers_in_computer_science • Major Historical Figures: • Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace, John Backus • Noam Chomsky, Edsger Dijkstra, Alan Turing • Richard Hamming, Marvin Minsky, Grace Hopper • John von Neumann, Frederick Alonzo Church, • Additional Figures: • Tim Berners-Lee, Edgar F. Codd, Margaret Hamilton, Donald Knuth, Bill Gates • Lesley Lamport, John McCarthy, Barbara Liskov, Alan Kay, Stephen Cook, Seymour CrayACM Turing Awards**ACM Turning Awards**https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_Award http://amturing.acm.org/byyear.cfm**Charles Babbage**Designed Analytical Engine Ada Lovelace First Programmer http://www.csus.edu/indiv/s/scanland/mis101/index_htm_files/babbage-abc-eniac.ppt**First General-Purpose**Automated Digital Computer Charles Babbage 1791-1871 Charles Babbage Analytical Engine Charles Babbage, its father. • Analytical Engine • It was never completed by Babbage, due to a lack of standardized parts. • English mathematician • Frustrated genius • One of the most interesting characters in the history of computers.**Analytical Engine**CPU Central Processing Unit Primary Storage 1,000 50 –digit numbers ALU < > = + - Control Unit Analytical Engine Input Cards Output Cards Secondary Storage Data on Cards**Ada Lovelace**• Augusta Ada Byron, Lady of Lovelace, Dec 15, 1815 • Born to Anna Isabella Milbanke and George Gordon Noel Byron • Ada was privately home schooled in mathematics and science • Died November 27, 1852at the age of 36 in London, England • She was bled to death by her physicians, who were trying to treat her uterine cancer https://computersciencepre-ap1.wikispaces.com/file/view/Augusta+Ada+Byron,+Lady+of+Lovelace.ppt**What’s their invention?**• She is known as the first programmer, because she wrote a description of Charles Babbage’s early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine • Ada’s Bernoulli calculation program for specialized calculus operations achieves correct values in today’s computers**What technological Advances/Developments came about because**of their invention? • The computer language Ada, created by the U.S. Defense Department, was named after Lovelace. The reference manual for the language was approved on December 10, 1980, Ada's birthday, and the Department of Defense Military Standard for the language, "MIL-STD-1815" was given the number of the year of her birth**Did someone help with the invention or who used the**innovation process to enhance this development? • Ada wrote a program for the Analytical Engine on her own, but she heard a lecture about the difference engine designed by Charles Babbage • Ada was inspired her to write her own program based on his lecture**ComputationalLinguistics INTroduction**Lecture 1 Computers and Language http://staff.um.edu.mt/mros1/lin2160/**Noam Chomsky**• Noam Chomsky’s work in the 1950s radically changed linguistics, making syntax central. • Chomsky has been the dominant figure in linguistics ever since. • Chomsky invented the generative approach to grammar. • Basis of context-free grammars can you study in CS CLINT - Lecture 1**By: Joyce Blasingame**Teacher Mathematician Computer Scientist Inventor Systems Designer Software Programmer Marketing Whiz Military Leader Grace Hopper http://www.slideshare.net/Elaine1975/grace-hopper-14275961**Grace Brewster Murray Hopper**• December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992 • Married in 1930 • Husband died in 1945 • 1928 BA from Vassar College • 1930 MA from Yale University • 1934 PhD from Yale University**Admiral Hopper**• 1943 United States Naval Reserve • 1946 Harvard’s Computation Laboratory • 1949 Senior Mathematician at Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation • 1955 Sperry Corporation • 1967 Leader in the NDAC • 1986 Retired from Navy with rank Rear Admiral, Senior Consultant to DEC**Compiler**• Grace’s biggest contribution to computing was the invention of the compiler. • In 1952 the A-0 Compiler was completed.**Alonzo Church**• June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995 • American mathematician and logician • Made major contributions to: • Mathematical logic and the • Foundations of theoretical computer science web.eng.fiu.edu/~arellano/1002/Computers/Presentation1.ppt**Alonzo Church**• He is best known for the lambda calculus, • is a formal system for function definition, function application and recursion • smallest universal programming language of the World • It is equivalent to Turing machines. However, it emphasizes the use of transformation rules and does not care about the actual machine implementing them • Underlies LISP, ML, etc. • Church–Turing thesis, • Frege–Church ontology, and the • Church–Rosser theorem.**Alonzo Church: Mathematician. Philosopher. Computer**Scientist? Alonzo Church is a mathematician and philosopher who developed the very first computer programming language known as Lambda Calculus. Church also worked with Alan Turing in the Church-Turing Thesis, which also was another huge impact on the world of computer science. “He was a pioneer in the field of mathematical logic and the theory of computation” -Alan Turing • LAMBDA CALCULUS • Lambda (λ) Calculus is a system that is in the world of math logic and computer science for creating a computation by way of combining variables using abstraction. Today, λ Calculus has applications in several different areas: mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. λ Calculus, along with Alan Turing’s Turing machine are important models in computation. • EX: Start with the function: 2x • Rewritten in Lambda as λx[2x] • Now solve this when x=3. • λx[2x](3) • [2x](3) • [2(3)] • = 6 ACCOMPLISHMENTS Church died in 1995 being a well decorated man in the math and computer science world. He earned a Ph.D. from Princeton University. His contributions to number theory and the theories of algorithms and computation laid a solid foundation to computer science. CHURCH TURING THESIS The Church-Turing thesis states that any real-world computation can be written into an equivalent computation involving a Turing Machine. wiki.western.edu/mcis/images/3/3f/Alonzo_Church_draft1.ppt**Tim Berners Lee**By Jack Neus socialstudiesorange.pbworks.com/f/Tim+Berners+Lee.ppt**What did he do?**• He invented the World Wide Web, which linked hypertext with TCP and DNS. • He invented W3 while working in CERN, a physics lab in Switzerland. • Hypertext is the idea of jumping from one document to another. A web page is a document too. • TCP and DNS were the early versions of WWW. That was what was used to create the first email.**Who was he?**• Tim Berners Lee was born on June 8, 1955. • Tim Berners Lee graduated from Oxford University. • Tim Berners Lee was 35 in 1989, when he first created the world wide web. • Tim Berners Lee lives in London, England. • Tim Berners Lee is now the president of W3C.**Company Statistics**• Tim Berners Lee founded W3C, otherwise known as the WWW Consortium. • The company is private. You cannot buy shares of it. • The company was founded in 1994. • The business was a first of its kind, finally introducing things like web pages.**http://www.cs.armstrong.edu/greenlaw/presentations/TenScientists.ppt**http://www.cs.armstrong.edu/greenlaw/presentations/TenScientists.ppt Ten Interesting Computer Scientists Dr. Raymond Greenlaw Armstrong Atlantic State University School of Computing**History of Computer Science**• 1673 – Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invents a machine to do multiplication • 1821 – Charles Babbage builds a machine to calculate exponential functions, begins designing Analytical Engine • 1832 – Ada Lovelace begins writing programs (on punch cards) for the nonexistent Analytical Engine, inventing such concepts as loops and subroutines • 1935 – Alan Turing defines a model for computation**History of Computer Science**• 1937 – Claude Shannon links Boolean logic to digital circuit design • 1939 – Turing’s work plays a key role in breaking the Germans’ Enigma code machine • 1943 – Small computers are being built in multiple countries • 1950 – Turing proposes a test of machine intelligence, the Turing test • 1956 – John McCarthy coins the term “artificial intelligence”**History of Computer Science**• 1957 – FORTRAN is released by John Backus and the IBM team • 1958 – John McCarthy invents Lisp • 1959 – John Backus and Peter Naur propose the use of context-free grammars to describe programming languages • 1961 – Edsger Dijkstra applies the semaphore principle used in train signaling systems to mutual exclusion in computer operations**History of Computer Science**• 1962 – Donald Knuth begins work on The Art of Computer Programming • 1971 – Alan Kay develops the first object-oriented programming language, Smalltalk • 1971 – Stephen Cook publishes a paper on non-deterministic polynomial completeness (NP-completeness), defining a new family of problems that is not computable in a practical sense**History of Computer Science**• 1973 – Leonid Levin publishes a paper identifying the class of NP-complete problems independently of Cook (research was conducted in 1971) • 1977 – Leslie Lamport defines a model of time for distributed systems based on a partial order of events • 1980 – Microsoft is founded, helping to push PCs into widespread use with the public**John Backus**“We simply made up the language as we went along. We did not regard language design as a difficult problem, merely a simple prelude to the real problem: designing a compiler which could produce efficient programs...”**Biography - John Backus**• 1949 – Graduated from Columbia University with a B.S. in Mathematics • 1950 – Joined IBM and worked on the SSEC (Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator) for three years • Collaborated with Peter Naur to create Backus-Naur Form • Developed FP which helped push functional programming • Retired in 1991**Achievements - John Backus**• Designer of FORTRAN • Backus-Naur Form • Designed FP, a functional programming language • 1977 – Turing Award winner • 1987 – named an IBM Fellow • 1993 – awarded a Draper Prize**Trivia - John Backus**• Has a plate in his head of his own design after having a bone tumor • Roughly half the work of designing FORTRAN went into generating efficient machine code • After retiring in 1991, has completely withdrawn from computer science • Practices meditation**Edsger Dijkstra**"Computer Science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes."**Biography - Edsger Dijkstra**• Studied physics at the University of Leiden • 1970s – Worked as a research fellow for Burroughs Corporation • Worked at the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands • Held the Schlumberger Centennial Chair in Computer Sciences at the University of Texas at Austin • Retired in 2000 • Died August 6, 2002**Achievements - Edsger Dijkstra**• Dijkstra’s algorithm (shortest path) which has been used to solve numerous routing problems • The semaphore construct which helped solve the problem of critical regions • Formulated the dining philosophers problem • 1972 – Turing Award winner • Has archive of technical papers at University of Texas at Austin**Trivia - Edsger Dijkstra**• At age 12, attended Gymnasium Erasminium, an elite Dutch high school • “Go To Statement Considered Harmful” was the revised title by Niklaus Wirth (then editor of CACM), originally titled “A case against the goto statement” • On team to invent first compiler for ALGOL 60, made a deal with collaborator not to shave until project was complete, kept the beard until his death**Trivia - Edsger Dijkstra**Dining Philosophers • Imagine that five philosophers are sitting around a table. Before each is a bowl of rice and a chopstick to either side of the bowl. The rules for dining: • Each philosopher thinks for a while, eats for a while, and then waits for a while • To eat, he must hold both his right and left chopstick • They only communicate by lifting and lowering their chopsticks**Alan Kay**“All understanding begins with our not accepting the world as it appears.”**Biography - Alan Kay**• 1966 – B.S. in Mathematics and Molecular Biology, University of Colorado • 1969 – M.S. in Electrical Engineering, Ph.D. in Computer Science, University of Utah • 1970 – Professor, Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory • 1972 – Group Leader, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center • 1984 – Apple Fellow, Apple Computers**Achievements - Alan Kay**• Designer of Smalltalk • Coined the term “object-orientation” • Conceived the laptop computer • Architect of the modern windowing GUI • 2001 – UdK 01-Award winner • 2003 – Turing Award winner • 2004 – Kyoto Prize and Charles Stark Draper Prize winner**Donald Knuth**“Computer programming is an art form, like the creation of poetry or music.”**Biography - Donald Knuth**• Graduated in 1960 from Case Institute of Technology with a B.S. in Mathematics, was simultaneously awarded an M.S. for his achievements, an unprecedented move • Received a Ph.D. in Mathematics from California Institute of Technology in 1963 • Joined Stanford University as a Professor of Computer Science in 1968 • In 1993, became Professor Emeritus of The Art of Computer Programming at Stanford, where he is still currently located**Achievements - Donald Knuth**• Authored The Art of Computer Programming, a multi-volume tome on CS • Inventor of TeX and METAFONT • LR(k) parsing • Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm • 1974 – Turing Award winner • 1979 – National Medal of Science • 1995 – John von Neumann Medal**Trivia - Donald Knuth**• The Art of Computer Programming began as a text about compilers • Loves organ music, mostly 4 and 8-hand music which he plays on an organ in his home, he studied piano as a child • Pays $2.56 (one hexadecimal dollar) for errors found in his books • Quit using email in 1990 • Processes all communications in batch-mode**Leslie Lamport**“A distributed system is one in which the failure of a computer you didn’t even know existed can render your own computer unusable.”**Biography - Leslie Lamport**• 1960 – B.S. in mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • 1963 – M.A., Brandeis University • 1972 – Ph.D., Brandeis University • 1970-1977 – Massachusetts Computer Associates • 1977-1985 – SRI International • 1985-2001 – Digital Equipment Corporation/Compaq • 2001-Present – Works for Microsoft**Achievements - Leslie Lamport**• Bakery Algorithm – an improvement to Djikstra’s semaphore idea, which involves each participant getting a ticket • Lamport Clocks – A relative time idea used in distributed computing • Developed a technique using digital signatures to aid in fault-tolerant systems • Designer/developer of LaTeX, a macro system that sits on top of Knuth’s TeX and is used by many scientists for papers**Trivia - Leslie Lamport**• LaTeX started as a side project to improve the “new version” of TeX introduced in 1982, Lamport estimates he spent about 10 months developing LaTeX • Very modest about his involvement with many of his ideas, saying “most of it seems like dumb luck—I happened to be looking at the right problem, at the right time, having the right background.”**John McCarthy**“If you want the computer to have general intelligence, the outer structure has to be commonsense knowledge and reasoning.”