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Period 2 Classical Civilizations PowerPoint Presentation
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Period 2 Classical Civilizations

Period 2 Classical Civilizations

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Period 2 Classical Civilizations

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  1. Period 2Classical Civilizations 600BCE-600CE

  2. Differences from early civilizations • 1. Size and political strength - could more easily control large areas of land • 2. Complex cultures - religions emerge and art and literature flourish • 3. Better written records - sophisticated forms of writing • 4. More complex long distance trade - new trade routes • 5. Contact between nomads and sedentary people • 6. Direct influence on modern civilizations

  3. Three Areas • 1. Mediterranean* • 2. Indian subcontinent • 3. East Asia • *Mediterranean • Greece, Persia, Rome

  4. Greece • Geography • Land travel difficult

  5. Brief History • Minoans controlled area by 1600 BCE • Replaced by Mycenaeanswho were often at war • Invasions and attacks hurt Mycenae leads to dark era until 800BCE • Isolation until Phoenicians made contact and traded with Greeks • Trade brings prosperity

  6. Political Development • Greek city-states (or polis) begin to develop • Major city-state was Athens; rival = Sparta • All sorts of governments were adopted • In Early Athens, an oligarch named Solon (6th century BCE) set up laws that could be revised; rather than passed down • About 510 BCE Cleisthenes further experimented with democracy

  7. Political Development • Athens "Town Meeting" - all free males called on to make decisions (no women or slaves) • Early Sparta • Highly militaristic society • Emphasis on self-discipline, obedience and physical fitness • Clip from 300; 7-9 on M&M

  8. Ancient Greece – Polis Minoans Mycenaeans Sparta Athens

  9. Economic Characteristics • Trade was most important in economy • Invention of coins • Farmers = part-time soldiers • Hoplites - armored soldiers who fought in close cooperation together • Colonies were established for surplus, tribute and trade • Greece - Ionia, Marsalia (Marseille)

  10. Social distinctions • Citizen and non-citizen • Sparta, there was theoretical equality • Simple clothing and no jewelry and were frugal • Sparta maintained self-sufficiency; leery of trade • Athenians had no disdain for luxuries • Almost 30% of the population was enslaved (but generally well treated)

  11. Women • Spartan women were free and equal with men • Women expected to be physically fit • Men were at war so women ran Sparta • Athenian women were confined to the home • No political rights and could not own property or businesses Bronze statue of girl running

  12. Cultural Characteristics • Polytheistic • Zeus and Hera • Poseiden, sea • Athena, wisdom and war • Apollo, sun • Most educated Greeks did not take the gods very seriously • Emphasis on secularism to seek answers to dilemmas of life

  13. Philosophy - "love of wisdom" • Greek philosophers invented "natural law" • Socrates - emphasis on rationalism, ability of humans to reason • Plato - Socrates student; allegory of the cave • Aristotle - Plato's student Plato

  14. More Cultural Advancements • Greeks developed: Drama, Lyric poetry, "Classical" architecture (Acropolis) • Cultural achievements by classical era Greeks are part of Hellenic culture (hellas = Greece)

  15. Persia • Geography • Rose in Iran; between major trading areas

  16. Afro-Eurasia in 350 BCE

  17. Persian Empire

  18. Persian Empire (558-332 BCE) • Founded by Cyrus the Great • Darius I (521-486 BCE) • Balanced central administration & local governors • Divided government into 3 districts ran by satraps • Built the Royal Road • Fought Persian Wars (500-479 BCE) • Led to the decline of the Persian Empire

  19. Persian Empire • Persian Society • Women worked in textile manufacturing • Government used slaves to complete public works projects • Persian Economy • Government coined money • Facilitated trade from Greece to India • Persian Religion • Zoroastrianism

  20. World in 350 BCE

  21. Brief History • Organized under Cyrus the Great and expanded eventually to the Mediterranean • Cyrus created strong political system • Subjects allowed to keep local laws and customs • Local governors (called satraps) collected tribute and provided for soldiers • Major city - Persepolis; court created there

  22. History continued • Athens was expanding in Anatolia and so was Persia, under Darius I • Major war at Marathon (490 BCE) which the Greeks won • Battles continued; the Persian Xerxes was weakened in 480 BCE at Thermopylae • "east" vs. "west"

  23. Persian Wars • Contributed to Persia's decline and Athens as the premier city-state of Greece • Athens formed alliances • Delian League under leader Pericles • Athens attacks Corinth, who is Sparta's ally • Peloponnesian War (431-404BCE) between Sparta and Athens • Sparta eventually won but Greece was vulnerable to attack

  24. Kingdom of Macedon • King Phillip II (359-336 BCE) transformed Macedonia by building a powerful military • Poised to expand his empire after uniting most of Greece under his control, he was assassinated • His 20 year old son, Alexander took over

  25. Alexander the…. Who? • Defeated Anatolia, Egypt (greeted as pharaoh), Persia • Conquered land between the Adriatic Sea and Indus River • Never lost a battle • Becomes known as Alexander the Great • Hellenistic Age follows because of spread of Greek culture • Hellenistic synthesis refers to blending of cultures, creation of cosmopolitan societies connected by trade and Greek culture

  26. Important Wars Persian Wars Peloponnesian War 100 years are full of polis on polis violence 430 BCE – Sparta dominates the land and Athens the sea 404 BCE – Sparta buys Persian boats and defeats Athens at sea 338 BCE - Macedonians – rough and rowdy (questionable ‘Greakness’), lead by Philip, wins control of Greek city states 334 BCE Alexander Philip’s son spreads the GreekEmpire • Ionian Revolt - 499 BCE -Greeks upraise on Persian rule • Xerxes - 480 BCE - launches massive army (300,000?) • Battle of Thermopylae– 300 Spartans lead by Leonidas fight heroically and inspire other Greek hoplites who are better armed that Asiatic infantry to continue to fight Persia • The Delian League - lead by Athenian generals and navy liberate the Greek city states over the next 20 years

  27. Rome • heavily influenced by the Greeks • dominates the area for 700 years; encompassed 2000 years

  28. The legend of Romulus and Remus • Rhea was married to Mars, the Roman god of war. Rhea had twin sons. She loved her boys, but there were plots afoot by other gods and goddesses to harm her father, herself, her husband, and her children. To protect the boys, she set them adrift on the river, hoping someone would find them. Who would not love such beautiful boys? • Sure enough, first they were found by a she-wolf who fed them. Then a shepherd and his wife adopted the boys.  • As the twins grew older, they decided they did not want to take care of sheep. They wanted to be kings. They decided to build a city on the shores of the Tiber. They both wanted to be the only king. They quarreled. In a fit of rage, Romulus picked up a rock, killed his brother, and made himself king.  • That’s how Rome started.

  29. Political Development • Etruscans established city-states about 800BCE • One of their earliest communities was called Rome (509 BCE) • *Romulus and Remus • 509 BCE - Rome gains independence and declares itself a republic, or state without monarch • Republic lasted until 31BCE when Augustus becomes emperor • Republic government not a democracy

  30. Political Development • Senate - aristocrats • General Assembly - Plebeians (90%) • Two consuls were elected from the Senate • one-year terms • Plebeians eventually were allowed representatives called tribunes

  31. Political Development • Julius Caesar, patrician general, challenged the power of the Senate and created a Triumvirate (rule of three) (Crassus and Pompey) • Caesar was assassinated by senators (44BCE) • Octavian (Caesar's nephew) won control • Senate declares him Augustus ("revered one")

  32. Augustus’ Achievements • Created civil service • Codified Roman law • New courts and legal experts • Built roads and public works • Reorganize the navy • PaxRomana

  33. Women • Treated as children • First father supervises her, then husband, then son • However, many women supervised the family business • Roman literature – vocal and powerful women

  34. Culture • Legal Innovations • 1) Concept of precedent • 2) Belief that equity should be the goal of the legal system • 3) Natural law • 4) Interpretation of the law (responsibility of judges)

  35. Culture • Imitation of Greek gods • Same god different name • Zeus = Jupiter, Poseidon = Neptune, Athena = Minerva, Ares = Mars • No immortality; no afterlife (most)

  36. Culture • Spread of Latin as a language • Engineering -roads and aqueducts Virgil – Roman poet known for Aeneid

  37. Decline • Defense of long borders • Class struggles • Epidemics • Second capital city - Constantinople • Constantine in 4th Century CE • Germanic invasions; last emperor in 476CE

  38. China • At same time of Rome increasing influence, China was emerging from • Warring States Period - end of Zhou dynasty, marked by political turmoil, warlords constantly challenging Zhou • How to solve problems? Qin Shi Huangdi

  39. 3 Belief Systems Form • 1) Legalism • humans = evil and only obey authority by force • strict laws, harsh punishments • sacrifice personal freedom for the state • 2) Daoism • Laoziencouraged people to avoid useless struggles by following Dao (path) • politics and military lack morality • individual retreat from society; emphasis on acceptance • 3) Confucianism • based on hierarchical, harmonious relationships to create orderly society • 5 relationships key, family at the center

  40. Qin Dynasty • Qin emphasized Legalism • iron weapons to defeat and unite China • king declares himself first "emperor" • Shi Huangdi, 221-210BCE

  41. Coming from Underground • Shi Huangdi, the First Emperor of China, created the army to protect him in the afterlife

  42. First Emperor’s accomplishments • Unified warring states • Network of roads • Linked/extended Great Wall • Single written script • Mass production • Interchangeable parts • Unified law code and currency

  43. Iron Fist • Ruthless • Absolute right of command • Heavy taxation and oppressive policies • Several assassination attempts • Built covered walkways • Wore disguises • Slept in different places every night • Obsessed with finding the secret to immortality • Searched for magic elixirs • One such elixir contained mercury and it’s believed mercury poisoning contributed to his death. • Shortly after his death revolts start that lead to the end of Qin

  44. Han Dynasty (206BCE - 220 CE) • Liu Bang - quickly brought order • strengthened bureaucracy • Bureaucracy – body of non-elected government officials • Forbidden City (only his family, servants, and closest advisors)

  45. Han Political Development • Strong, nonhereditary bureaucracy • De-emphasized legalism • Emphasized Confucian values • “Mandate of Heaven" - emperor had support of the heavens as long as he was a good ruler