Table of Contents – pages iii Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell
Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii
Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease
Unit Overview – pages 472-473 Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Viruses and Bacteria Protists Fungi
Chapter Contents – page ix Chapter 18Viruses and Bacteria 18.1:Viruses 18.1:Section Check 18.2:Archaebacteria and Eubacteria 18.2:Section Check Chapter 18Summary Chapter 18Assessment
Chapter Intro-page 474 What You’ll Learn You will identify the structures and characteristics of viruses and bacteria. You will explain how viruses and bacteria reproduce. You will recognize the medical and economic importance of viruses and bacteria.
18.1 Section Objectives – page 475 Section Objectives: • Identify the different kinds of viruses and their structures. • Compare and contrast the replication cycles of viruses.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 What is a virus? • You’ve probably had the flu—influenza—at some time during your life. • Nonliving particles called viruses cause influenza. • Viruses are composed of nucleic acids enclosed in a protein coat and are smaller than the smallest bacterium.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 What is a virus? • Most biologists consider viruses to be nonliving because they don’t exhibit all the criteria for life. • They don’t carry out respiration, grow, or develop. All viruses can do is replicate—make copies of themselves—and they can’t even do that without the help of living cells. • A cell in which a virus replicates is called the host cell.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 What is a virus? • Viruses, such as rabies viruses and polioviruses, were named after the diseases they cause. • Other viruses were named for the organ or tissue they infect.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 What is a virus? • Today, most viruses are given a genus name ending in the word “virus” and a species name. • However, sometimes scientists use code numbers to distinguish among similar viruses that infect the same host. • A virus that infects a bacterium is called a bacteriophage (bak TIHR ee uh fayj), or phage for short.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Viral Structure • A virus has an inner core of nucleic acid, either RNA or DNA, and an outer protein coat called a capsid. Capsid Nucleic acid Envelope
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Viral Structure • Some relatively large viruses, such as human flu viruses, may have an additional layer, called an envelope, surrounding their capsids. Capsid Nucleic acid Envelope
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Viral Structure • Envelopes are composed primarily of the same materials found in the plasma membranes of all cells. Capsid Nucleic acid Envelope
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Viral Structure • Viral nucleic acid is either DNA or RNA and contains instructions for making copies of the virus. Nucleic acid • Some viruses have only four genes, while others have hundreds. Capsid 1. Viral nucleic core is a short piece of RNA or DNA, is not circular, contains genes that are involved in making copies of the virus.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Viral Structure Nucleic acid • The tobacco mosaic virus has a long, narrow helical shape. Capsid
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Viral Structure • The arrangement of proteins in the capsid of a virus determines the virus’s shape. Capsid Nucleic acid • Polyhedral viruses resemble small crystals.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Viral Structure • The protein arrangement also plays a role in determining what cell can be infected and how the virus infects the cell. Capsid Nucleic acid
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Attachment to a host cell • Before a virus can replicate, it must enter a host cell. • A virus recognizes and attaches to a host cell when one of its proteins interlocks with a molecular shape that is the receptor site on the host cell’s plasma membrane.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Attachment to a host cell • A protein in the tail fibers of the bacteriophage T4 recognizes and attaches the T4 to its bacterial host cell. Capsid Nucleic acid Tail Tail fiber 2. Virus must first recognize the host cell and find a viral protein receptor site where it attaches to the host cell. The viral protein may be in the tail, protein coat or envelope.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Attachment to a host cell Capsid • In other viruses, the attachment protein is in the capsid or in the envelope. Nucleic acid Tail Tail fiber
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Attachment is a specific process • Each virus has a specifically shaped attachment protein. Therefore, each virus can usually attach to only a few kinds of cells. • In general, viruses are species specific, and some also are cell-type specific. For example, polio viruses normally infect only intestinal and nerve cells. 3. The attachment protein of the bacteriophage has a shape that will allow it to interlock only with certain plasma-membrane molecules found on certain bacterial cells.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Attachment is a specific process • The species specific characteristic of viruses is significant for controlling the spread of viral diseases.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Viral Replication Cycles • Once attached to the plasma membrane of the host cell, the virus enters the cell and takes over its metabolism. • Only then can the virus replicate. • Viruses have two ways of getting into host cells.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Viral Replication Cycles • The virus may inject its nucleic acid into the host cell like a syringe injects a vaccine into your arm. • The capsid of the virus stays attached to the outside of the host cell. • An enveloped virus enters a host cell in a different way. 4. Virus is injecting nucleic acid into the host. Other virus enter in a way similar to endocytosis where the cell envelops the virus pulling it into the cell where it bursts out.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Viral Replication Cycles • After attachment, the plasma membrane of the host cell surrounds the virus and produces a virus-filled vacuole inside the host cell’s cytoplasm. • Then, the virus bursts out of the vacuole and releases its nucleic acid into the cell.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Lytic cycle • Once inside the host cell, a virus’s genes are expressed and the substances that are produced take over the host cell’s genetic material. • The viral genes alter the host cell to make new viruses.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 5. The host cell is destroyed during lysis Bacteriophage Bacterial DNA Nucleic acid Bacterial host cell B. Entry Lytic cycle A. Attachment The bacteriophage injects its nucleic acid into the bacterial cell. E. Lysis and Release The host cell breaks open and releases new virus particles. C. Replication D. Assembly The host’s metabolic machinery makes viral nucleic acid and proteins. New virus particles are assembled.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Lytic cycle • The host cell uses its own enzymes, raw materials, and energy to make copies of viral genes that along with viral proteins are assembled into new viruses, which burst from the host cell, killing it. 6. The host’s metabolic machinery must make viral nucleic acid and proteins. 7. Virus uses enzymes, raw materials, and energy from the host and structures such as chromosomes and ribosomes.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Lytic cycle • The new viruses can then infect and kill other host cells. This process is called a lytic (LIH tik) cycle. Click image to play movie 8. Living cells can reproduce. Viruses replicate only when they infect a living cell and use the metabolic machinery of the cell.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Lysogenic cycle 1. The lysogenic cycle is a viral replication cycle that does not kill the host immediately • Not all viruses kill the cells they infect. • Some viruses go through a lysogenic cycle, a replication cycle in which the virus’s nucleic acid is integrated into the host cell’s chromosome. Click image to play movie
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Lysogenic cycle • A lysongenic cycle begins in the same way as a lytic cycle. • However, in a lysogenic cycle, instead of immediately taking over the host’s genetic material, the viral DNA is integrated into the host cell’s chromosome.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Lysogenic cycle • 2. Viral DNA that is integrated into the host cell’s chromosomes is called a provirus. • 3. A provirus may not affect the functioning of its host cell, which continues to carry out its own metabolic activity. • However, every time the host cell reproduces, the provirus is replicated along with the host cell’s chromosome.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Lysogenic cycle • Therefore, every cell that originates from an infected host cell has a copy of the provirus. • The lysogenic phase can continue for many years. However, at any time, the provirus can be activated and enter a lytic cycle. 4. The provirus is replicated along with the chromosome of the host cell, thereby passing on copies of the provirus to every descendant of the host cell. 5. The lytic cycle is initiated when the provirus leaves the chromosome of the host cell.
6. The entry phase of the lysogenic cycle, when the virus attaches to the plasma membrane of the host and the injects its nucleic acid into the cell or undergoes endocytosis, is similar to the lytic cycle.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Lysogenic cycle B. Provirus Formation A. Attachment and Entry Provirus Although the provirus is inactive, it replicates along with the host cell’s chromosome. C. Cell Division Bacterial host chromosome A lysogenic virus injects its nucleic acid into a bacterium. The viral nucleic acid is called a provirus when it becomes part of the host’s chromosome. LYSOGENIC CYCLE LYTIC CYCLE The provirus leaves the chromosome. The cell breaks open releasing viruses. Viral nucleic acid and proteins are made.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Disease symptoms of proviruses • Many disease-causing viruses have lysogenic cycles. • 7. Three examples of these viruses are herpes simplex I, herpes simplex II that causes genital herpes, and the hepatitis B virus that causes hepatitis B.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Disease symptoms of proviruses • Another lysogenic virus is the one that causes chicken pox.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Disease symptoms of proviruses • Having chicken pox, which usually occurs before age ten, gives lifelong protection from another infection by the virus. However, some chicken pox viruses may remain as proviruses in some of your body’s nerve cells.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Disease symptoms of proviruses • Later in your life, these proviruses may enter a lytic cycle and cause a disease called shingles—a painful infection of some nerve cells.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Release of viruses • Either lysis, the bursting of a cell, or exocytosis, the active transport process by which materials are expelled from a cell, release new viruses from the host cell.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Release of viruses • In exocytosis, a newly produced virus approaches the inner surface of the host cell’s plasma membrane. • The plasma membrane surrounds the virus, enclosing it in a vacuole that then fuses with the host cell’s plasma membrane. • Then, the viruses are released to the outside.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Retroviruses • Many viruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease AIDS, are RNA viruses—RNA being their only nucleic acid. HIV virus
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Retroviruses • The RNA virus with the most complex replication cycle is the retrovirus (reh tro VY rus). HIV virus
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Retroviruses • Once inside a host cell, the retrovirus makes DNA from its RNA. • To do this, it uses reverse transcriptase, an enzyme it carries inside its capsid.
Section 18.1 Summary – pages 475-483 Retroviruses • This enzyme helps produce double-stranded DNA from the viral RNA. • Then the double-stranded viral DNA is integrated into the host cell’s chromosome and becomes a provirus.