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Sharon Walpole, University of Delaware Michael C. McKenna, University of Virginia PowerPoint Presentation
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Sharon Walpole, University of Delaware Michael C. McKenna, University of Virginia

Sharon Walpole, University of Delaware Michael C. McKenna, University of Virginia

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Sharon Walpole, University of Delaware Michael C. McKenna, University of Virginia

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  1. Sharon Walpole, University of Delaware Michael C. McKenna, University of Virginia Differentiated Reading Instruction: Fluency and Comprehension

  2. Building Word Recognition and Fluency Team reads the overview Coach uses a checklist Teachers use the coach’s plan Coach shows a sample plan

  3. Building Word Recognition and Fluency Coach shows the planning template Coach uses a checklist Teachers work together to plan Teachers use their own plans

  4. Overall Goals: Consider how to address the needs of children who would benefit from a focus on fluency and comprehension Explore how to plan such instruction Commit to improvements

  5. A Stairway to Proficiency Vocabulary & Comprehension Fluency and Comprehension Word Recognition and Fluency PA and Word Recognition

  6. Which children belong in this group? Let’s start by considering their needs.

  7. Children on this step have achieved general decoding proficiency. Some may require attention to decoding multi-syllabic words. Most of small-group time will be devoted to fluency practice. Comprehension will be fostered by questions that prompt inferences and summaries. What are our targets for the third step?

  8. Now let’s use the Cognitive Model to identify them.

  9. The Cognitive Model Phonological Awareness Decoding and Sight Word Knowledge Fluency in Context Print Concepts Automatic Word Recognition Vocabulary Knowledge Background Knowledge Language Comprehension Reading Comprehension Knowledge of Text and Sentence Structures Strategic Knowledge Specific Purposes for Reading Knowledge of Strategies for Reading General Purposes for Reading

  10. Think about your assessments. Let’s translate the model into a series of guiding questions. Think about the data you will need to answer these questions.

  11. Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency?

  12. Yes Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency? Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read)

  13. Yes Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency? Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) No Are all or nearly all decoding skills mastered?

  14. Yes Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency? Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) No Yes Are all or nearly all decoding skills mastered? Fluency and Comprehension

  15. Yes Is the child at benchmark in oral reading fluency? Vocabulary and Comprehension (Children Read) No Yes Are all or nearly all decoding skills mastered? Fluency and Comprehension Which assessments can help us answer these questions in Georgia’s Reading First schools?

  16. Select appropriate books. Choose instructional approaches. Formulate comprehension questions. Three Keys to planning

  17. Is the book written at grade level but toward the upper end of that level? Is the book likely to interest the children? Does the book contain authentic, natural prose rather than decodable or patterned language? Does the text incorporate a limited number of challenging multisyllabic words? Can the children complete the book within a three-week cycle? Guiding Questions for selecting books

  18. Lexiles can help

  19. Should the lesson begin with an activity devoted to multisyllabic words? Should the first reading of the text segment be done through echo or choral reading? Should the second reading of the text segment be done through partner or whisper reading? Choosing instructional methods

  20. Let’s look at each technique more closely. Student Responsibility Teacher Support

  21. Echo Reading

  22. Practice with short segments if students are unfamiliar with the process. Read one or more entire sentences before pausing. (Try not to pause within sentences.) Read enough material that students cannot rely on memory alone. Make sure that children finger point as they read. Monitor to ensure attention to print and tracking. SUGGESTIONS FOR ECHO READING

  23. Choral Reading

  24. Keep an eye on the clock and stop after five minutes. Do not pause to ask questions or elicit input from children. Make sure that children finger point as they read. Monitor to ensure attention to print and tracking. SUGGESTIONS FOR choral READING

  25. Partner Reading

  26. Which students should be paired? How should partners be changed over time? How shall the partners sit? How shall the partners read? Key quESTIONS FOR partner READING

  27. Assign partners based on compatibility. Do not change partners during the three-week cycle. Seat children so that they are next to their partners at the beginning of the lesson. Use any of the three basic seating arrangements for partner work. SUGGESTIONS FOR partner READING

  28. Partner seating arrangements Face to Face Love Seat Side by Side

  29. Make sure that children understand the procedure, which includes these rules: • Take turns. • Listen and follow along in the book while your partner reads. • Be polite if you help your partner. • Follow the (teacher-made) rule about how much to read. • Don’t talk about other things. • Tell the teacher if there are problems. • Monitor each pair, offering help as needed. Suggestions for partner reading

  30. Whisper Reading

  31. Make a rule about how to ask for help. Be sensitive to the possibility that whisper reading may be too hard, and be ready to use partner reading instead. Remind students to attend only to their own voices. Remind students to use whisper voices. Monitor one child at a time. Provide pronunciations as needed. SUGGESTIONS FOR WHISPer READING

  32. What about comprehension? We will focus on inferring and summarizing.

  33. Inferential questions for little red riding hood

  34. Assessing fluency growth

  35. Overall steps in planning

  36. Fluency and Comprehension Group

  37. Let’s look at some sample lessons.

  38. First Grade These children require no additional work with decoding. During small-group time, they will benefit most from practice to improve fluency. Comprehension is prompted by key inferential and summary questions.

  39. Lexile = 420 (Mid 2nd)

  40. Second Grade These children may benefit from practice with multi-syllabic words. The advanced decoding component of each lesson consists of a list of two-syllable words. The words in each list contain two of the six major syllable types. Let’s review them.

  41. Second Grade

  42. Second Grade

  43. Lexile = 560 (Mid 3rd)

  44. Third Grade Like the second graders, these children may or may not require additional work with decoding. During small-group time, they will benefit most from practice to improve fluency. The texts are more challenging than those we use with second graders. Again, comprehension is prompted by key inferential and summary questions.

  45. Lexile = 600 (High 3rd)