World English Vs. World Englishes Wednesday Sharing Session December 2, 2009 Presented by: Sonny Soentanto
Definitions & Explanations • World English: is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to as Global English, World English, Common English, Continental English or General English. Sometimes "international English" and the related terms above refer to a desired standardisation, i.e. Standard English; however, there is no consensus on the path to this goal. • World Englishes: „Any language variety of English including those developed by communities in which English was not indigenous in modern history.“ ( The Routledge Companion to Sociolinguistics, 2007, p. 234)
Why English Has Become a World Language • Historical reasons: spread through trade and colonization, wars, and cultural dissemination. • Educational reasons: English is much more developed than other languages. • Political reasons: Language of super power and language of political institution • Intellectual reasons: scientific, technological, and academic info available in English • Economic reasons: working language in mncs • Practical reasons: international air traffic, emergency services • Entertainment reasons: language of popular music, cultures, broadcasting
World (New) Englishes • Forms of New Englishes not uniform in characteristics, but share criteria: • developed through education system • developed in an area where English was not spoken by majority of people • has become „nativised“ by own language features ( after J.Jenkins, World Englishes,2003,p 22/23)
The Concepts of ENL, ESL & EFL • Three distinct forms of users • increasingly difficult to classify speakers belonging to only one group • but important starting point to understand distinctions and spread of New & World Englishes
ENLEnglish as Native Language • language of people born &raised in countries, where English is (historically) the first language • countries like: UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand -> as „traditional, cultural & linguistic bases“ • around 350 million ENL speakers around the world • Not one single variety, differences in territories (e.g. UK and US) • Norm providing and spoken in the Inner Circle
ESLEnglish as Second Language • people living in territories like India, Bangladesh, Nigeria and Singapore • Countries former colonised by British ->English gained importance in administration • English serves official purpose within the country in law, education and government • also worldwide around 350 million speakers • Norm developing and labeled as non-standard, illegitimate, interlanguage, bad, deviant, half baked
EFLEnglish as Foreign Language • For speakers of EFL English serves no purpose in own country • Historically learned for communication with ENL speakers • Nowadays used for communication with other non-native speakers • Norm dependent and used in Expanding Circle • Example for EFL: Indonesia
Kachru‘s three cirlce model of world Englishes • most influential model describing spread of World English • Connected to the ENL, ESL, EFL concepts • Kachru divides World Englishes in three concentric circles
Kachru‘s three cirlce model of world Englishes The Inner Circle • Countries: UK, USA, Canada,Australia, New Zealand -> ENL countries • Spoken English as „norm providing“ • English-language standards determined by ENL speakers (Inner Circle)
Kachru‘s three cirlce model of world Englishes The Outer Circle • Countries: Bangladesh, Singapore, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Malaysia,… -> ESL countries • Spoken English regarded as „norm developing“ (developing own standards)
Kachru‘s three cirlce model of world Englishes The Expanding Circle • Countries: China, Egypt, Indonesia, Taiwan, Korea, Israel,… -> EFL countries • Spoken English regarded as “norm performing“ -> standards from Inner & Outer Circles are performed / taken over • But no official status, therefore dependent on standards set by Inner Circle
Kachru‘s three cirlce model of world Englishes Criticism • Model implies uniformity of countries within one circle -> not true: even in Inner Circle differences in amount of liguistic diversity • todays Immigration left out of account • grey area between Outer and Expanding Circle -> countries in transition from EFL to ESL status, like: Argentina, Belgium, Denmark…
Mc Arthur‘s circle of World English Inner Circle: • World Standard English -> but not existing in identifiable form Outer Circle: • Band of regional varieties of English standard standardising forms forms
Mc Arthur‘s circle of World English „crowded fringe“ • Dividing the world into 8 seperate regions • Describe subvarieties of the standard & standardising forms • Examples: Welsh English, Quebec English,… • Summary example: WSE American Standard English Midland
Singapore English - Short Overview About History • Singapore was originally part of the Sri Vijaya kingdom of Sumatra • in 1819 the British trader Sir Stamford Raffles leased the island from the Sultan of Johore • it became the 'Straits Settlements' with Malacca and Penang in 1826 (under the East India Company) • 1867 British colony • taken by Japanese in 1942 (WW II) but became British again in 1945 • self-government in 1959 • part of the Federartion of Malay from 1963 to 1965 • then independent state
Singapore English - General Facts • four official languages in Singapore English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay and Tamil • English is the language of the law courts, government administration and education • 1947 31,6 percent of students attended English-medium schools (others attended Chinese- and Tamil-medium schools) • since 1987 English is the exclusive medium for primary, secondary and tertiary education • main language of commerce and business • main feature: wide social range of its users
The Concept of basilect and acrolectuse of English • Social dialectic concept • Acrolect (standard): • Used for international communication • And for formal & public intranational interaction • Basilect (colloquial): • Used for informal intranational communication
on the other hand home-grown colloquial style - so called Singlish serves the young as a means of solidarity, relaxing and being oneself vigorous, slangy and creative language Singapore English - General Facts • at the higher level there's a government-backed normative variety based on British English • spoken with a near-RP accent • used by Singapore Broadcasting Corporation • influenced by American usage
Singapore English - Particular Features • Chinese influence • Chinese particles la(h) and aa/ah used to express emphasis and emotion • la(h) as a token of informal intimacy → Can you come tonight? Can lah/Cannot lah • aa/ah in yes-no questions → You wait me, aa? instead of Will you wait for me? • I come tonight, ah? instead of Should I come tonight? • You think I scared of you, ah?
Singapore English - ParticularFeatures • Chinese-style interjections • ay yaah! to express surprise or exasperation • ay yor! to express pain or wonder or both • ay yer! indicating a reaction to something unpleasant and maybe unexptected • che! expressing irritation or regret
Singapore English - Pronounciation • vowels in words such as take, so and dare are often single vowels as in Scottish English and not diphthongs as in RP • reduction of final consonant clusters to one spoken consonant • juss for 'just' • tol for 'told' • slep for 'slept'
Singapore English - Grammar • tendency of omitting • articles You have pen or not? • plural inflection -s I got two sister and three brother. • present-tense inflection -s This radio sound good. • past-tense inflectinon -ed/-t ask for asked and slep for slept
Singapore English - Grammar • direct and indirect objects are often placed first → Me you don't give it to. instead of You didn't give it to me. • also used more often than too, especially at the end of a sentence→ But we are supposed to learn Chinese also.
Singapore English - Grammar • ways of checking if someone agrees or disagrees or can or cannot do something are pretty informal • Are you coming? Yes or not? • Like it or not? • Are you going? Can or not? • Enough or not?
Singapore English - Vocabulary • English words with re-applied meanings • send meaning 'take' → I will send you home. • open meaning 'put on' → Open the light. • close meaning 'put off' → Close the light. • take suggesting 'eat, drink, like' → Do you take hot food?
Singapore English - Vocabulary • formal and informal style are less distinct from each other than in British and American usage • that results in a mix of highly colloquial and highly formal use → her deceased hubby rather then her dead husband • words taken from regional languages • for example the Malayan word makan (food) → Let's have some makan.
The Implication for LIA • No need to bother about World Englishes if you teach EC, ET, EA. • Expose the students to World Englishes if you teach CV, CIB etc. to raise their awareness and tolerance and provide your students with cross-cultural communication strategies.