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Christian History

Christian History

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Christian History

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  1. Christian History A Survey

  2. Two Great Questions • Has it ever been this bad before? • Where did we come from and why do we do what we do?

  3. Two Great Sources • The Word of God • The History of the Church

  4. Our Approach • A survey—highlights not details • For information • To gain encouragement (Romans 15:4)

  5. Christianity is Rooted in History • The factual history of Israel • The factual history of the Person and Work of Jesus Christ • The factual history of the New Testament Church

  6. The Big Picture TODAY 30 AD A “Fun” Quiz

  7. Score Your Quiz How Did You Do?

  8. From Pentecost to Patmos The Apostolic Age (30-95 AD)

  9. The Big Picture

  10. Paths of the Apostles Paul Peter John James

  11. Paths of the Apostles Andrew James the Just Thomas Matthew

  12. External Dangers: Persecution • Jewish • Stephen • James • Roman • Nero (60’s AD) • Peter • Paul • Domitian (90’s AD) • Sporadic & Disorganized

  13. Internal Dangers: Heresies • Gnosticism • Judaistic Legalism

  14. The Fathers After the Apostles

  15. The Big Picture

  16. The Apostolic to Post-Apostolic Period Apostolic Teaching 30-100 AD Apostolic Teaching Apostolic Fathers 100-200 AD Church Fathers 200-330 AD Persecuted Minority Acceptance

  17. Continued Expansion

  18. Meet the Parents (Fathers) • Clement of Rome • Ignatius of Antioch • Polycarp of Smyrna • Hermas (the Shepherd)

  19. Clement of Rome • Elder of the church in Rome • Proponent of organization (Letter to Corinth) • Became the “bishop” of Rome

  20. Ignatius of Antioch • Martyred in 110 AD • En route to Rome, wrote famous letter • Promoted hierarchy of church leadership • Bishop • Elders • Deacon • Especially focused on a “central bishop”

  21. Polycarp of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey) • Martyred 155 AD • Example of Godliness • “How shall I deny Him who has done me nothing but good these 85 years?”

  22. Hermas (The Shepherd) • Roman Christian • Claimed visions from God • Writings considered “almost scriptural” • A call to repentance

  23. The Fruit of the Fathers • Split with Judaism—move toward Gentile dominance • Rise of the “clergy”—the seeds of the papacy • Intrusion of “works salvation” • Early distinctions between eastern and western Christianity (Greek vs. Roman)

  24. Move from Congregational to Clerical Leadership “Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be; even as where Jesus may be there is the universal church. It is not lawful apart from the bishop to baptize or hold a love feast (communion).”

  25. Early Emphasis on Works Salvation “Happy are we, dear friends, if we keep God’s commandments in the harmony of love, so that by love our sins may be forgiven us.”

  26. The Rise of Rome “The City of God”

  27. Key Questions • How did the Church of Rome come to the Catholic Church? • Who were the key figures that lead to its rise? • What difference has it made to us today?

  28. The Big Picture

  29. The Period of Roman Dominance Rise of Roman Catholicism 313-600AD Roman Corruption 1000-1500AD The Dark Ages 600-1000AD Corrupt Mixture of Earthly and Spiritual Power Reformation!

  30. Factors Leading to the Rise of Rome • Emergence of the “monarchial bishop” • Legalization of Christianity • Decline of other “centers of power” • Creation of the Eastern Empire • Defensive moves against heresies Constantinople Rome Ephesus Antioch Jerusalem

  31. Defenses Against Error • The Canon of Scripture (4th Century) • Church Councils (e.g. Nicaea) • Pronouncements of the Roman bishop

  32. The Roman Lineup • Peter I (not really!) • Damasus I (366-384AD) • Leo the Great (440-461AD) • Gregory the Great (590-604AD)

  33. Damasus I • Claimed “apostolic succession” from Peter • Commissioned the “Latin Vulgate” translation of Scripture 366-384 AD

  34. Leo I • Saved Rome from Attila the Hun

  35. Gregory the Great (Pope #1 or #64) • Took title of Pope (Father) and Pontifex Maximus (Highest Priest) • Consolidated Europe under Catholic Religion • Sent Roman missionaries • Wrote liturgy • Introduced “purgatory” 590-604 AD

  36. So What Did All This Mean?By 600 AD… • The “Church” became a spiritual-political organization • The “Clergy” became a career path to wealth and influence • “Grace” was channeled via the Church, its priests, and its Sacraments • “Tradition” was placed on par with Scripture • Pagan practices were absorbed into church activity

  37. And we enter… The Dark Ages

  38. The High Middle Ages All Roads Lead to Rome 800-1300 AD

  39. The Big Picture

  40. The Medieval Church 800 1000 1300 Holy Roman Empire (French) Holy Roman Empire (German) Scholasticism Crusades Roman Catholicism East-West Church Eastern Orthodoxy

  41. A Lot of “Moving Parts”

  42. Political: Holy Roman Empire • Charlemagne (800 AD) • Otto I (962 AD) • Early stages of “nation states” • Set the stage for the German Reformation

  43. Political: The Roman Church • Investiture Controversy • Multiple Popes • Pope on a Rope • Use of “ecclesiastical weapons” Henry IV Repents Before Pope Gregory VII

  44. Political: The Great Schism • Eastern Church (Greek) • Greek • Anti-Icon • Western Church (Roman) • Latin • Images • Filioque Question Pope Leo IX Michael Celularius

  45. Political: The Crusades • First Crusade 1095 AD • Second Crusade 1147 AD • Third Crusade 1189 AD

  46. Theology: New Doctrines & New Orders • Scholasticism • Reason Over Scripture • Transubstantiation • Sacramental Salvation • Monastic Orders • Benedictines • Franciscans • Dominicans • Cistercians

  47. Growth: Church Expansion

  48. By 1300… • Church had devolved into an “ecclesio-political” machine • Corruption was rampant • Salvation was taught to be through the church & sacraments • The stage was set for the Reformation

  49. Something is Rotten in Rome The Decline of the Roman Church 1300-1500 AD