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Summary And Transition: Past, Present And Future Climates PowerPoint Presentation
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Summary And Transition: Past, Present And Future Climates

Summary And Transition: Past, Present And Future Climates

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Summary And Transition: Past, Present And Future Climates

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  1. Western Interior Paleontological Society Summary And Transition: Past, Present And Future Climates Paul E. Belanger, Ph.D. WIPS 1ST VP

  2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Bob Raynolds Jonathan Bujak Dag Nummedal Ian Miller Peggy LeMone Caspar Ammann …et al. that I did not mean to omit Global Warming/Climate Change – Resource Issues – Alternatives Study Group: FTP SITE: https://sslaccess.elkresources.net/files/

  3. THE PRESENT IS THE KEY TO THE PAST (LYELL) IS also THE KEY TO THE FUTURE

  4. THE PAST

  5. FROM CSI TO GSI:GEOLOGICAL SAMPLEINVESTIGATION LET THE EVIDENCE SPEAK FOR ITSELF

  6. WE CALL THIS EVIDENCE “PROXY” DATA

  7. SOME OF THE EARLIEST PROXY DATA WAS FROM TERRESTRIAL DEPOSITS • Strandlines/shorelines • Moraines • Till • Kettle lakes, etc. We may know what caused these today, but imagine back then?

  8. IT’S THE INTERPRETATION THAT’S NOT ALWAYS CORRECT Darwin observed ancient Alpine shorelines: interpreted as ocean shoreline Agassiz – later correctly interpreted as ice- dammed lake-shore strandlines/shoreline

  9. Jean Louis R. Agassiz • “Father” of Glaciology • 1807-1873 • Paleontologist • Glaciologist

  10. Photographic proxy data/evidence Ruddiman, 2008

  11. EARLY PROXY DATA: TREE RINGS

  12. Pollen & Lake core data Ruddiman, 2008

  13. PROXY DATA: POLLEN DATA

  14. PROXY DATA: LEAVES

  15. Tree rings, corals, ice cores Ruddiman, 2008

  16. PROXY DATA: ICE CORES

  17. TERRESTRIAL DATA European: Wurm Riss Mindel Gunz North American: Wisconsin Illinoian Kansan Nebraskan

  18. LATER EVIDENCE CAME FROM THE MARINE RECORD NOT WITHOUT IT’S PROBLEMS, BUT MORE COMPLETE

  19. CesareEmilani:Paleontologist,ChemistFather of Paleoceanography

  20. Other Paleoceanographers Wally Broecker Thermal-haline “conveyor” belt of circulation

  21. Other Paleoceanographers Bill Ruddiman Nick Shackleton

  22. Other Paleoceanographers John Imbrie: CLIMAP

  23. PROXY DATA: CORE DATA

  24. PROXY DATA: BENTHIC FORAMS

  25. PROXY DATA: PLANKTONIC FORAMS

  26. Deep Sea Coring Ruddiman, 2008

  27. Proxy data: stable isotopes Wikipedia

  28. - SO – WHAT CONTROLS CLIMATE

  29. Gerhard et al., 2001

  30. OF HUGE IMPORTANCE: • DISTRIBUTION OF CONTINENTS WITH RESPECT TO LATITUDE • OCEAN CIRCULATION • OPENING OF THE DRAKE PASSAGE: • ISOLATING ANTARCTICA • BARRIERS TO EQUATORIAL CIRCULATION: • CLOSING OF ISTHMUS OF PANAMA 3-5 Ma

  31. we think of this as ‘normal’…but bipolar glaciation geologically rare possibly unique

  32. Icehouse Earth

  33. Milankovitchcycles(forcing factors)

  34. MILANKOVITCH CYCLES ARE REFLECTED IN THE GEOLOGIC RECORD

  35. Cenozoic Climate Record Wikipedia

  36. Climate Changes from Ocean Sediment Cores, since 5 Ma. Milankovitch Cycles Wikipedia

  37. Empirical Interpreted The Ice Record: Milankovitch Brook, 2008 Nature

  38. Gerhard et al., 2001

  39. BUT IS THIS CORRECT?Does CO2 always have a lesser role in controlling climate?

  40. Jacobs Fricke Shellito HERE’S THE LONG TERM RECORD

  41. Snowball Earth ~650 Ma

  42. WHAT CONTROLS THE LONG-TERM RECORD?IS IT STRICTLY CONTINENTAL POSITIONS AND OCEANIC CIRCULATION?

  43. TODAY WE SAW EOCENE EVIDENCEOF A WARMER CLIMATE

  44. Jacobs Ballantyne Shellito Fricke

  45. In particular we saw a VERY DRAMATIC increase in temperature in an environment of already HIGH CO2 VALUES when there was an additional spike of Methane and CO2

  46. Proxy data: stable isotopes Wikipedia

  47. Courtesy K. Johnson Fossil Lotus

  48. Living Lotus Courtesy K. Johnson

  49. BUT MARY KRAUS DIDN’T TELL US ABOUT THIS GUY!